Nootropics List: The Ultimate List of 178 Nootropics

Updated on January 17, 2024
 by — reviewed by Jason Williams, PhD (Contributor: George Collins / Editor: Yoko Hill)
An overview of various nootropics and their effects on neural enhancement.

Nootropics are becoming more and more popular than ever as people everywhere begin to realize just how beneficial they can be.

This extensive list contains all the best nootropics known to improve cognitive function and boost overall brain power. This list’s purpose is to help guide you in choosing the best nootropic for your needs and act as a springboard for further research into the vast number of other nootropics currently available.

Whether you’re looking for increased focus, improved memory recall, or better mood and motivation, there is a nootropic on this list that can help you achieve just that.

We will do a quick overview of each nootropic, how they work, and a link to the full article on the nootropic, when possible, so you can better understand what the nootropic is all about.

So without further ado, let’s begin our list!

123I-Ioflupane

Ioflupane (123I), sold under the brand names Datscan, Striascan, and Celsunax, is a cocaine analogue used as a neuro-imaging radiopharmaceutical drug in nuclear medicine. Its main use is to diagnose Parkinson’s disease (PD). It’s injected into a vein and travels to the brain. There, it binds to dopamine transporters (DAT). This makes it possible to image the density of DAT in the brain using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

2C-D

2C-D, also known as 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine and 2C-M, is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine chemical class and 2C-family, commonly used as an entheogen. Entheogens are substances that can catalyze profound changes in consciousness and spiritual experiences when administered.

3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate

3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate, or 3,4-CTMP and 3,4-DCMP, is a potent psychostimulant related to methylphenidate. It works by inhibiting the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, thus increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.

4-CTMP

4-CTMP (also known as Dichloropane, RTI-111, or O-401) is a stimulant of the phenyltropane class that acts as a serotonin-norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI). It works by increasing the activity of the three neurotransmitters by partially blocking their transporters and reducing their rate of reuptake, thus improving mood and relieving depression.

4-Fluoromethylphenidate

4-Fluoromethylphenidate (also known as 4F-MPH, 4-FMPH, 4FTMP, or 4F-TMP) is a halogenated derivative of methylphenidate (Ritalin). It is a stimulant that has stronger dopamine reuptake-inhibiting effects than methylphenidate. It is used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

5-HTP

5-HTP, also known as 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Tryptophan is converted to 5-HTP by tryptophan hydroxylase. 5-HTP is then converted to serotonin by decarboxylation. 5-HTP helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Acetildenafil

Acetildenafil (also known as Hongdenafil or Sidenafil) is a synthetic analogue of Sildenafil (Viagra), the active ingredient in the erectile dysfunction drug Viagra. It is used as a nootropic to increase cognitive performance, enhance focus, and improve memory. Acetildenafil has not been approved by the FDA, and there is limited research on its safety and efficacy.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, ALC, Acetylcarnitine) is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body and can also be taken as a supplement. It is used for a variety of purposes, including cognitive enhancement, neuroprotection, and improving physical performance. It is believed to improve memory and focus, reduce fatigue and depression, improve mental clarity, and increase energy levels.

Adderall

Adderall (or Mydayis) is an amphetamine-dextroamphetamine prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant (CNS) that increases alertness, focus, and concentration. It is a powerful nootropic that can improve cognitive performance, reduce fatigue, and boost creativity and motivation. However, Adderall is a potent drug that should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

Adrafinil

Adrafinil (Olmifon) is a synthetic nootropic drug that is used to increase wakefulness and alertness. It is a prodrug, meaning it is metabolized into the active compound modafinil in the body. It is used to combat fatigue and sleepiness, to improve mental performance, increase focus and concentration, and reduce reaction time. Adrafinil is also used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid

Alpha-Lipoic Acid (α-lipoic acid, ALA, thioctic acid) is an antioxidant that is naturally produced in the body and is also found in certain foods. It is used as a dietary supplement and is purported to have many health benefits, including cognitive enhancement. It is thought to improve memory and cognitive function, reduce oxidative stress and inflammation and protect the brain from free radical damage. It may also help with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Aminotadalafil

Aminotadalafil (RR-ATDF) is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is also being studied as a potential nootropic for its effects on cognitive performance, memory, and focus. Studies have found that it may improve memory, learning, and recall, reduce cognitive decline, and reduce anxiety.

Aniracetam

Aniracetam (N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat-soluble nootropic of the racetam family sold under the brand names: Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin and Referan. It is reported to have cognitive-enhancing properties, as well as anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anti-amnesic effects. Its benefits include improved memory and learning, enhanced focus and concentration, improved mood, and increased mental energy. Aniracetam is typically taken in dosages of 500-1500mg daily.

Apoaequorin

Apoaequorin is a protein found in certain species of jellyfish. It is used as a nootropic supplement to enhance memory and cognitive function. Studies have found that it may help improve memory recall, reduce anxiety, and protect brain cells from damage. Apoaequorin is also purported to help reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Areca Nut

Areca nut (also known as betel nut or supari) is a psychoactive, stimulant drug derived from the Areca catechu palm tree (Areca catechu). It is widely used in South and Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and is purported to have nootropic benefits. It is said to improve alertness, concentration, and memory, and may also reduce anxiety and depression. However, it is important to note that Areca nut is associated with a number of health risks, and should be used with caution.

Arecoline

Arecoline (Arecaline, Arecholine, Arecolin, Arekolin, and Methylarecaidin) is an alkaloid found in the Areca catechu plant, commonly used in traditional medicine. It is also used as a nootropic to improve memory and cognitive function. Studies have found that it may improve learning, memory, and focus, as well as reduce anxiety and depression. It is typically taken in dosages of 0.5-2mg daily.

Armodafinil

Armodafinil (brand names Nuvigil, Waklert, and Artvigil) is a prescription wakefulness-promoting drug used to improve alertness and wakefulness in people with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also used off-label as a nootropic to boost cognitive performance, improve focus, and increase motivation. Armodafinil is reported to have fewer side effects than modafinil and may be more effective in promoting wakefulness and alertness.

Artichoke

Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, and artichoke leaf extract) is a vegetable that is used for its medicinal properties. It is also a nootropic that has been used to improve mental clarity, focus, and memory. It has been found to increase levels of bile acid and reduce cholesterol levels. Artichoke is believed to increase cognitive performance, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve overall brain health.

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin (β-Carotene-4,4′-dione and (3S,3’S)-Astaxanthin) is a potent antioxidant found in some algae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, and other seafood. It is used as a dietary supplement for its potential nootropic benefits, including boosting cognitive function, improving memory, and reducing stress and fatigue. It has also been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and neuroprotective properties.

Atomoxetine

Atomoxetine (brand names Strattera, Axetra, Axepta, Attera, Tomoxetin, and Attentin) is a prescription drug used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that works by increasing the amount of norepinephrine available in the brain. This can help to improve focus, attention, and impulse control, making it a potentially useful nootropic for those with ADHD. Atomoxetine is typically taken in dosages of 40-100mg daily.

B-HO-Hordenine

B-HO-Hordenine (N,N-Dimethyltyramine, Peyocactin, and Anhaline) is a natural nootropic compound found in plants and some animals. It is an alkaloid that has been used to enhance mental performance, reduce fatigue, and improve focus, alertness, and concentration. B-HO-Hordenine may also help with weight loss and bodybuilding.

Benzyl Cyanide

Benzyl cyanide (2-Phenylacetonitrile, α-Tolunitrile, Benzylnitrile, and BnCN) is a synthetic compound used as an intermediate in the production of various chemicals. It is not a nootropic and has no known cognitive-enhancing properties. It is toxic and should not be ingested.

Beta-Asarone

Beta-Asarone (alpha-Azaron, cis-Isoelemicin, and 2,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl-2-propene) is an extract from the root of the sweet flag plant and is used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and sedative properties. It is also being investigated as a nootropic for its potential benefits in improving cognitive function, memory, and focus. Studies have found that beta-asarone may have neuroprotective effects and may help reduce anxiety and depression.

CBD

CBD (Cannabidiol, Cannabidiolum, Epidiolex, and Epidyolex) is a compound found in cannabis and hemp plants. It is a non-psychoactive compound, meaning it does not produce a “high” like THC. CBD has many potential health benefits, including reducing inflammation, relieving pain, and improving sleep. It has also been found to have nootropic benefits, such as improving focus, concentration, and memory, as well as reducing anxiety and stress.

Caffeine

Caffeine (Methyltheobromine, and 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine) is a stimulant found in coffee, tea, energy drinks, and many other beverages and foods. It is also available as a supplement and is considered a nootropic due to its ability to increase alertness, focus, and concentration. Caffeine is purported to boost physical and mental performance, improve mood, and provide an energy boost.

California Poppy

California Poppy (Eschscholzia Californica, Golden poppy, California sunlight or Cup of gold) is a native North American plant that has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for a variety of ailments. It is a mild nootropic that can help to reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, and increase cognitive performance. It is also used to help with insomnia, pain relief, and relaxation.

Cat’s Claw

Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa or Uña de Gato) is a woody vine found in the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas. It is a popular herbal remedy used to treat a variety of ailments. It is also a nootropic that is purported to boost cognitive function and memory, reduce inflammation, and protect the brain from oxidative damage.

Catechins

Catechins (Catechinic acid, Cianidanol, or D-Catechin) are a type of polyphenol found in green tea and other plant foods. They are believed to have antioxidant properties and are used as nootropics to improve cognitive function and protect the brain from oxidative damage. Catechins are thought to improve memory, learning, alertness, and concentration, and reduce fatigue and stress.

Catuaba

Catuaba (Catuama, Chuchuhuasi, Tatuaba, Pau de Reposta, or Piratancara) is a nootropic herb derived from a Brazilian tree of the same name. It is traditionally used as an aphrodisiac and to boost libido, but it is also used as a nootropic for its purported cognitive-enhancing effects. It is believed to improve memory, focus and concentration, reduce anxiety and depression, and enhance mood. It may also improve sleep quality and provide neuroprotective effects.

Celastrus Paniculatus

Celastrus Paniculatus (lack oil plant, climbing staff tree, or intellect tree) is an Ayurvedic herb used to improve memory and mental performance. It is believed to increase intelligence, alertness, and concentration, and enhance overall cognitive function. Studies have found that it may help improve learning, memory, and recall, reduce anxiety and depression, and enhance mental clarity and focus.

Centrophenoxine

Centrophenoxine (Meclofenoxate, Lucidril, or Centrofel) is a nootropic drug used to treat cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and age-related memory loss. It is thought to work by increasing the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter associated with memory, and by increasing the levels of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Centrophenoxine also has antioxidant properties and is thought to help protect the brain from free radical damage. It is believed to enhance memory, focus, and concentration, as well as reduce mental fatigue.

Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate (Choline (2R,3R)-bitartrate) is a form of the essential nutrient choline, which is found in many foods. It is used as a dietary supplement and a nootropic to increase mental performance, focus, memory, and alertness. It may also help reduce fatigue and improve mood. It is often used in combination with other nootropics for a synergistic effect.

Cinnamon Extract

Cinnamon extract is a supplement derived from the bark of the cinnamon tree. It is rich in polyphenols and antioxidants, which can help protect the brain from oxidative stress. It has been found to improve cognitive function, memory, and alertness, as well as reduce anxiety and depression. It is also thought to increase energy levels and reduce fatigue.

Citicoline

Citicoline (CDP-choline, cytidine diphosphate-choline, cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine) is a nootropic compound that is used to enhance cognitive function, improve memory and recall, and reduce symptoms of mental fatigue. It is naturally found in the body and is also available as a dietary supplement. Studies have shown that Citicoline may improve brain function, reduce symptoms of dementia, and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Clitoria Ternatea

Clitoria Ternatea (Asian pigeonwings, bluebellvine, blue pea, butterfly pea, cordofan pea, or Darwin pea) is an herb that has traditionally been used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. It is also a nootropic herb that has been used to enhance cognitive function and memory. Studies have found that it may possess anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-fertility, anti-depressant, and anti-anxiety properties, as well as the ability to improve cognitive function and memory.

CoQ10

CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring compound found in the body and in some foods. It is a powerful antioxidant and is used to support cellular energy production. It is also a nootropic that can help improve cognitive performance, mental clarity, and focus. Studies have found that CoQ10 may help reduce fatigue, improve memory, and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Coluracetam

Coluracetam (MKC231, or BCI-540) is a nootropic of the racetam family that is purported to have cognitive enhancing properties. It is thought to increase the sensitivity of the brain’s cholinergic receptors, which may help to improve memory, learning, and focus. It may also help to reduce anxiety and depression. Coluracetam is typically taken in dosages of 5-80mg daily.

Convolvulus Pluricaulis

Convolvulus Pluricaulis (Shankhpushpi, Shankhapushpi, or Convolvulus pluricaulis) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used to improve cognitive function, memory, and concentration. It is believed to improve mental clarity, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve mood. It is also used to treat various neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia.

Coumarins

Coumarins are a group of natural compounds found in many plants and herbs. They are known to exhibit nootropic effects and have been used for centuries to boost cognitive function and memory. Coumarins have been found to be neuroprotective, reduce anxiety and depression, improve concentration and focus, and promote mental clarity and alertness.

Creatine

Creatine (Methylguanidoacetic acid, N-Carbamimidoyl-N-methylglycine) is an organic acid naturally occurring in the body that supplies energy to all cells, primarily muscle cells. It is most commonly used for athletic performance, but has also been found to have nootropic benefits, such as improved memory, focus, and mental clarity. Creatine is usually taken in dosages of 5g per day.

Curcumin

Curcumin (Curcuma longa, Diferuloylmethane, Natural Yellow 3, or C.I. 75300) is the main active ingredient in turmeric, a spice used in many Indian dishes. It is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries in traditional medicine. It is also a nootropic that may improve cognitive function, reduce anxiety and depression, and help with memory recall. It may also have neuroprotective effects, helping to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

DL-Phenylalanine

DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA, Phenylalanine, or (S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid) is an amino acid that is synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine. It is used as a nutritional supplement for its potential nootropic benefits, such as improved focus, energy, and mood. It is also purported to reduce stress and anxiety, increase alertness, and help with depression.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone naturally produced by the body, primarily in the adrenal glands. It is the most abundant hormone in the human body and is a precursor to other hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. It is believed to provide cognitive benefits, such as improved memory and focus, enhanced mood, and enhanced learning. It may also provide anti-aging benefits, such as improved skin health, increased energy, and improved metabolism.

Deoxypipradol

Deoxypipradol (DOPAC, 2-⁠diphenylmethylpiperidine (2-DPMP), or its hydrochloride salt, pipradrol) is a stimulant drug and nootropic that has been used for its psychostimulatory and cognitive-enhancing effects. It is believed to work by increasing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can lead to improved focus and alertness, enhanced mood, and improved cognitive function.

Dexanabinol

Dexanabinol (HU-211 or ETS2101) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the cannabinol family. It is purported to have neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic properties. It has been studied for its potential to treat traumatic brain injury and other neurological disorders, as well as its ability to enhance learning and memory. It is also used to reduce inflammation and pain, and may help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Dexmethylphenidate

Dexmethylphenidate (also known as d-threo-methylphenidate (D-TMP), Focalin, and Focalin XR) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and nootropic drug that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps to improve focus, concentration, and attention. It also has cognitive-enhancing effects, such as improved memory, learning, and problem-solving skills.

Dextroamphetamine

Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Xelstrym, Adderall, or ProCentra) is a psychostimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used as a nootropic to improve mental performance, alertness, concentration, and focus. Dextroamphetamine is a powerful stimulant and should be used with caution.

Dimethylaminoethanol

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE, DMEA, or Deanol) is a naturally-occurring compound found in fish and other foods. It is also a nootropic supplement that is believed to improve mental alertness, reduce stress, and improve mood. It may help to increase focus, concentration, and memory, and may also have anti-aging effects.

Dimethylethanolamine (DMAE)

Dimethylethanolamine (DMAE, DMEA, or Deanol) is a compound that is naturally produced in the body and is found in certain foods. It is also available as a dietary supplement and is commonly used as a nootropic. It is purported to boost cognitive function, improve memory, and enhance mood. It is also said to reduce age-related cognitive decline and improve alertness, focus, and motivation.

Docosahexaenoic Acid

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA, or Cervonic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish, algae, and certain plant sources. It is a key component of the human brain and is essential for proper brain development and function. DHA is a nootropic that can help improve memory, focus, and concentration. It may also help reduce inflammation, support healthy mood, and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Drinabant

Drinabant (AVE-1625) is an experimental nootropic drug that is being studied for its potential effects on cognitive function. It is a selective CB1 receptor inverse agonist and is thought to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and anxiety. Drinabant is also thought to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties, and may be useful in treating age-related cognitive decline.

Dronabinol

Dronabinol (brand names Marinol, Syndros, Reduvo, and Adversa) is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. It is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, and to improve appetite in people with AIDS. It may also have potential nootropic benefits, such as reducing anxiety and improving cognitive performance.

Ephedrine

Ephedrine (Brand names Akovaz, Corphedra, and Emerphed) is an alkaloid derived from the plant of the same name. It is used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant, and is also used in some nootropic formulations. It has been reported to increase alertness and focus, reduce fatigue, and improve physical and mental performance. However, it can have serious side effects and should be used with caution.

Ethylphenidate

Ethylphenidate (EPH, Baxtercaine, EPHY, and EPHP) is a stimulant drug and nootropic of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes. It is a structural and functional analog of methylphenidate (Ritalin). It is reported to have similar effects to methylphenidate, but with a longer duration of action. It is purported to increase focus, concentration, and productivity, and to reduce fatigue and mental fog.

F-Phenibut

F-Phenibut (4-Fluorophenibut, Fluorophenibut, Fluorobut, Baflofen, and CGP-11130) is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). It is used as a nootropic to reduce anxiety, improve sleep quality, and enhance cognitive performance. It is also used to treat stress, depression, and alcohol withdrawal. It is reported to improve focus and concentration, reduce fatigue, and boost motivation.

Fasoracetam

Fasoracetam (NS-105, LAM-105, and (5R)-5-(Piperidine-1-carbonyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) is a nootropic of the racetam family. It is purported to improve cognitive function, reduce anxiety, and improve symptoms of ADHD. Studies suggest that Fasoracetam may help to improve memory, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve focus and attention. It is also thought to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties.

Fipexide

Fipexide (brand names Attentil, and Vigilor) is an atypical nootropic drug that is used to treat cognitive impairment and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It increases the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline, resulting in improved alertness, focus, and concentration. Fipexide may also help improve memory, reduce anxiety, and alleviate fatigue.

Fladrafinil

Fladrafinil (CRL-40,940, Fluorenol, and fluorafinil) is a synthetic nootropic of the eugeroic family. It is a prodrug of Modafinil, meaning it is converted into Modafinil in the body. It is used to increase wakefulness, alertness, and focus, and to reduce fatigue and sleepiness. It may also improve mood, reaction time, and memory.

Flavonoids

Flavonoids (bioflavonoids) are plant-based compounds found in fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices. They are known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and have been linked to a variety of health benefits. Flavonoids are also thought to be beneficial for cognitive health, as they may help protect against age-related cognitive decline, improve memory, and reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Flmodafinil

Flmodafinil (CRL-40,940, bisfluoromodafinil and lauflumide) is a nootropic drug of the eugeroic class. It is the R-enantiomer of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent. Flmodafinil is used to treat excessive sleepiness caused by narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. It may also be beneficial for cognitive enhancement, improving focus and concentration, and increasing alertness and energy levels.

Forskolin

Forskolin (Coleonol) is a plant that has been used for centuries in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is a nootropic herb that has been found to be beneficial for memory and cognitive performance. Forskolin is believed to increase the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is a molecule that helps regulate memory formation, learning, and recall. It may also help reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, and boost energy levels.

GABA

GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-Aminobutyric acid) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps calm the nervous system and is involved in regulating mood, sleep, and other cognitive functions. GABA is also available as a dietary supplement and is purported to reduce anxiety, improve mood, and promote relaxation. It is also used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), improve sleep, and reduce symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Galantamine

Galantamine (Reminyl, Nivalin, Razadyne, and Lycoremine) is a nootropic drug used to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. It is derived from the common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and is thought to enhance cognitive function by increasing the levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter important for learning and memory. It may also improve focus, alertness, and motivation.

Geranamine

Geranamine (Methylhexamine, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, 1,3-DMAA, dimethylamylamine, Forthane and DMAA) is a stimulant drug and dietary supplement. It is used for its nootropic effects, such as improved focus, alertness, and energy. It has been found to improve mental performance, reduce fatigue, and enhance physical performance. It is typically taken in dosages of 10-50mg.

Ginger Root Extract

Ginger Root Extract (Zingiber officinale) is a popular spice used in many dishes. It has also been used in traditional medicine for centuries. It is a nootropic supplement that has been found to have many health benefits, including cognitive enhancement, improved mood, increased energy, and improved memory. Ginger Root Extract has also been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, improve mental clarity, and reduce anxiety.

Gingko Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba (G. biloba, Maidenhair Tree, or Salisburia Adiantifolia) is an ancient Chinese herbal remedy that has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. It is also a nootropic herb that has been used to enhance cognitive function, improve memory, and reduce anxiety and depression. Studies have found that it may help improve concentration, focus, and mental clarity, reduce fatigue, and increase alertness.

Ginseng

Ginseng (P. ginseng, Panax ginseng, or Korean ginseng) is an herb native to Asia that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. It is a popular nootropic that is known to improve brain function, reduce stress and anxiety, improve cognitive performance, and increase energy levels. It may also help improve focus and concentration and provide protection against age-related cognitive decline.

Glutamine

Glutamine (L-glutamine, (levo)glutamide, or 2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid) is an amino acid that is important for many processes in the body, including muscle and brain function. It is also used as a nootropic supplement to improve mental alertness, focus, and concentration. Glutamine may help reduce anxiety, improve mood, and increase energy levels. It may also help improve memory and learning, reduce fatigue, and enhance physical performance.

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica, kodavan, Indian pennywort, or Asiatic pennywort) is an ancient Ayurvedic herb that has been used for centuries for its numerous health benefits. It is also a nootropic herb that has been used to improve cognitive function and memory. Studies have found that Gotu Kola may help reduce stress and anxiety, possess anticancer properties, reduce inflammation and blood pressure, and improve cognitive function.

Guarana

Guarana (Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant native to the Amazon rainforest and is a natural source of caffeine. It is a popular ingredient in energy drinks, weight loss supplements and other nootropic supplements. It is purported to improve mental focus and alertness, reduce fatigue and improve physical performance. It may also offer antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits.

Harmaline

Harmaline is an alkaloid found in the plant Peganum harmala, also known as Syrian rue. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for its psychoactive and nootropic properties. It is reported to have anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, and anti-inflammatory effects, and to improve cognitive performance, focus, and alertness. It may also be used as an anti-malarial and anti-cancer agent.

Harmalol

Harmalol (1-Methyl-4,9-dihydro-3H-β-carbolin-7-ol) is an alkaloid found in the seeds of the Syrian rue plant and is known to have nootropic and antidepressant properties. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is also believed to enhance cognitive function, improve memory and focus, and increase energy levels. Additionally, it may have neuroprotective effects and may help protect against neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

Homosildenafil

Homosildenafil (Methyl-sildenafil) is a synthetic drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is also used as a nootropic to enhance cognitive function and mental performance. Homosildenafil is thought to work by increasing blood flow to the brain and improving focus, alertness, and concentration. It may also help reduce fatigue and improve motivation.

Hordenine

Hordenine (4-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]phenol) is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in barley and other plants. It has been used as a nootropic to improve mental performance, focus, and clarity of thought. It is also used as a stimulant to increase energy levels and alertness, and to boost physical performance. Hordenine is typically taken in dosages of 20-80mg daily.

Huperzine A

Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid compound found in a type of moss that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. It is a nootropic supplement that has been studied for its potential to boost cognitive performance, enhance memory, and protect the brain from age-related cognitive decline. Huperzine A may improve learning, memory, and alertness, as well as reduce fatigue and improve sleep quality.

Hydergine

Hydergine (Dihydroergotoxine, Ergoloid mesylates, co-dergocrine mesilate, or Dihydroergotoxine mesylate) is a nootropic drug derived from ergot alkaloids. It is used to treat cognitive decline and dementia, as well as age-related memory loss. It is reported to increase blood flow to the brain, improve mental alertness and concentration, reduce fatigue, and improve mood. Hydergine is typically taken in dosages of 1-3mg daily, and may offer benefits for those with age-related cognitive decline.

Icariin

Icariin is the active compound found in the herb Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium). It is a nootropic that has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve cognitive function, memory, and focus. It has been found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Icariin has been reported to improve learning and memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and enhance mental clarity and focus.

Isopropylphenidate

Isopropylphenidate (IPH, IPPH, IPD, or IPPD) is a synthetic stimulant of the phenethylamine class. It is a structural and functional analog of methylphenidate (Ritalin), and is commonly used as a nootropic to enhance focus and concentration. It may also be used to increase alertness, reduce fatigue, and improve mood.

JZL-184

JZL-184 (4-Nitrophenyl 4-[di(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate) is a nootropic drug of the piperidine class. It is a derivative of methylphenidate and acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain. It has been found to improve cognitive performance, increase focus and alertness, reduce fatigue, and enhance mood. It is commonly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Kaempferol

Kaempferol (3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid found in various plants, fruits, and vegetables, and is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been studied for its potential to improve cognitive performance, memory, and learning, and may even help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Kaempferol has been found to increase the production of nerve growth factor, which helps promote neuron growth and protect neurons from damage.

Kava Kava

Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) is a tropical shrub native to the South Pacific islands. It is a traditional medicinal herb and has been used as a nootropic for centuries to reduce anxiety, improve mood, and promote relaxation. It is also used to treat insomnia, improve cognitive function, and reduce stress. Kava Kava has been found to be safe and effective for short-term use, but long-term use should be monitored by a healthcare professional.

Kratom

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves have been used for centuries as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments. It is also used as a nootropic to boost mood, energy, and focus. Kratom is reported to have opioid-like effects, and is used to treat pain, anxiety, depression, and opioid withdrawal symptoms. However, its safety and efficacy are still being studied.

L-655,708

L-655,708 (also known as FG-8094) is a synthetic nootropic compound that is believed to be one of the most potent members of the racetam family. It is purported to improve memory, mental clarity, and focus, while providing a mild stimulatory effect. Research has found that it may have neuroprotective and antiamnesic properties, helping to protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Lecithin

Lecithin is a fat-like substance found in many foods such as eggs, soybeans, and sunflower seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement and is used for its potential nootropic benefits. It is purported to improve memory, focus, and concentration, as well as reduce stress and anxiety. Lecithin may also help protect against age-related cognitive decline and improve mental clarity.

Lemon Balm

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) is an herb of the mint family. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for its calming, anti-anxiety and sedative effects. It is also used as a nootropic to improve cognitive function and memory, reduce stress and anxiety, and enhance mood. It has been shown to help improve sleep quality, reduce symptoms of ADHD and Alzheimer’s, and improve memory and focus.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom

Lion’s Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus, mountain-priest mushroom, bearded tooth fungus, or bearded hedgehog) is an edible mushroom that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. It is a nootropic that has been found to possess neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties. It may help boost memory, focus, concentration, mental clarity, and creativity. It may also help reduce anxiety, depression, and stress, and may improve sleep quality.

Lisdexamfetamine

Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse, Tyvense, or Elvanse) is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge-eating disorder. It is a prodrug, meaning that it is converted to an active form of the compound, dextroamphetamine, in the body. It is thought to work by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which are involved in controlling attention and behavior. It may help improve focus, concentration, and overall cognitive performance.

Lobeline

Lobeline is a natural alkaloid found in the Indian tobacco plant and other plants. It is used as a nootropic to enhance cognitive function, boost alertness and concentration, and improve focus and memory. It may also have anti-addictive properties and may help treat nicotine addiction.

Lovegra

Lovegra (Sildenafil, Viagra, or Revatio) is a prescription medication used to treat erectile dysfunction in men. It works by increasing blood flow to the penis, which helps men achieve and maintain an erection. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor. Lovegra is not a nootropic, but it can help improve sexual performance, which can in turn improve confidence, mood, and overall wellbeing.

Maca

Maca (Lepidium meyenii, Peruvian ginseng) is a root vegetable native to Peru. It is a popular natural nootropic that is known for its energizing and mood-enhancing properties. It may help improve mental focus, attention, and clarity, reduce stress and fatigue, and enhance overall cognitive performance. Maca is also a good source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, and can be consumed in powder, capsule, or liquid form.

Magnolia

Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis, Magnolia bark) is a flowering plant native to China and is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is a nootropic herb that has been used to enhance memory and cognitive function, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve sleep quality. Studies have found that it may also possess anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-cancer properties.

Melatonin

Melatonin (NSC 113928, NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is a hormone produced in the brain that helps regulate the body’s sleep-wake cycle. It is available as a supplement and is often used to treat insomnia, jet lag, and other sleep disorders. It has been shown to improve sleep quality, reduce the time it takes to fall asleep, and increase total sleep time. Melatonin is also used to boost mood and cognitive performance and is thought to have neuroprotective and anti-aging effects.

Memantine

Memantine (Namenda, Axura, Ebixa) is a nootropic drug used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. It works by blocking the action of a neurotransmitter called glutamate, which is believed to be involved in the progression of Alzheimer’s. It is thought to improve cognitive function, memory, and learning, as well as reduce agitation and aggression.

Menthol

Menthol (Hexahydrothymol, Menthomenthol, Peppermint camphor) is an organic compound derived from mint plants and is used as a flavoring agent in many products. It is also used in some nootropics to reduce anxiety and improve mental clarity, focus, and alertness. Menthol has a cooling and calming effect, which can help reduce stress and anxiety, and improve cognitive performance.

Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Quillivant XR) is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used off-label as a nootropic to increase focus, concentration, and productivity. It is considered to be one of the most effective ADHD medications and can also help improve symptoms of fatigue and depression. However, it can be habit-forming and should be used with caution.

Mexamine

Mexamine (5-Methoxytryptamine, 5-MT) is a molecule that has been researched for its potential nootropic benefits. It naturally occurs in the body and is a tryptamine derivative closely related to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.

Modafinil

Modafinil (Provigil, Modalert, Modavigil, Alertec, CRL-40476) is a wakefulness-promoting drug used to treat excessive sleepiness caused by narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also used off-label as a nootropic to improve mental performance, alertness, and focus. Modafinil is reported to increase motivation, productivity, and concentration, and to reduce fatigue and the need for sleep.

Modafinil Sulfone

Modafinil Sulfone (CRL-41056, 2-(Diphenylmethanesulfonyl)acetamide) is a nootropic drug of the eugeroic class that is primarily used to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. It is also used off-label as a cognitive enhancer, as it may improve alertness, focus, and concentration. It is believed to increase dopamine levels in the brain, which may lead to increased motivation, improved mood, and improved cognitive performance.

Mucuna Pruriens

Mucuna Pruriens (Monkey tamarind, Velvet bean, Bengal velvet bean, Florida velvet bean) is a tropical legume that is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is also a nootropic supplement that has been used to increase focus, mental clarity, and cognitive performance. It is believed to promote brain health by increasing dopamine levels, which can improve mood, motivation, and concentration. Additionally, Mucuna Pruriens may help reduce stress and anxiety, improve sleep quality, and enhance physical performance.

N-Methyl-4,4’-Difluoro-Modafinil

N-Methyl-4,4’-Difluoro-Modafinil (N-Methylbisfluoromodafinil, Dehydroxyfluorafinil, and Modafiendz) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the eugeroic family that is used to promote wakefulness, alertness, and focus. It is reported to be more potent than Modafinil and is used to treat sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. Its benefits include increased mental energy, improved focus and concentration, increased motivation, improved memory and cognition, and improved wakefulness.

N-Methyl-Cyclazodone

N-Methyl-Cyclazodone (Cyclazodone, N-Cyclopropylpemoline, 2-(Cyclopropylamino)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-one) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. It is purported to have cognitive-enhancing effects, including improved memory and learning, increased focus, and reduced anxiety. It is also reported to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. NMC is not approved for human use and should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

NSI-189

NSI-189 is a novel nootropic drug developed by Neuralstem, Inc. It is a small molecule that is believed to act as a neuroregenerative agent and antidepressant. It has been studied for its potential to reverse the effects of depression and improve cognitive function. NSI-189 is not yet available as a supplement, but is being studied in clinical trials for its nootropic benefits.

Naringin

Naringin (Naringoside, Naringenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) is a flavonoid found in grapefruit and other citrus fruits. It is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. It has also been studied for its potential nootropic benefits, such as improving memory and learning, reducing anxiety, and protecting against age-related cognitive decline.

Nefiracetam

Nefiracetam (N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)acetamide, DM-9384) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the racetam family that may boost mental performance. It is purported to improve learning and memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and enhance cognitive function. It is typically taken in dosages of 400-800mg daily. It is used for its potential nootropic benefits, such as improved memory, focus, and concentration.

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD)

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells that helps regulate metabolism, as well as energy production and storage. It is also a nootropic that helps boost cognitive function, mental performance, and focus. It may also help to reduce anxiety and depression, improve sleep quality, and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Nicotine

Nicotine (Nicorette, Nicotrol) is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco, and is the primary psychoactive component of tobacco products. It is also used as a nootropic, as it has been found to improve cognitive function and has been used to treat cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Nicotine is generally taken in the form of a patch, gum, or lozenge. It is important to note that nicotine is a highly addictive substance and should be used with caution.

Noopept

Noopept (Omberacetam, GVS-111, N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is a synthetic nootropic compound that is claimed to be 1,000 times more potent than Piracetam. It is purported to improve memory, focus, and learning, reduce anxiety, and protect the brain from damage. It is typically taken in dosages of 10-30mg daily. It is thought to have neuroprotective and antioxidant properties and may help with cognitive decline.

Oat Straw

Oat Straw (Avena sativa) is a common grass that has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb. It is a natural nootropic that is rich in calcium, magnesium, iron, and other minerals. Oatstraw is known to improve mental clarity, focus, memory, and reduce stress and anxiety. It may also help to regulate hormones, reduce inflammation, and improve overall brain health.

Octopamine

Octopamine (OCT, Norsympathol, Norsynephrine, para-Octopamine, beta-Hydroxytyramine) is a naturally occurring trace amine found in plants and animals. It is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that is used as a nootropic to increase mental clarity, alertness, focus, and concentration. Octopamine is also used to reduce anxiety, improve mood, and increase energy levels.

Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam (ISF 2522) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the racetam family that is purported to improve memory, focus, and concentration. It is thought to work by stimulating the release of acetylcholine and glutamate, two key neurotransmitters involved in learning, memory, and cognition. Oxiracetam is typically taken in dosages of 800-2400mg daily, and it is reported to have long-lasting effects on memory and focus, as well as reducing anxiety and improving mood.

PRE-084

PRE-084 (2-morpholin-4-ylethyl 1-phenylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the racetam family, similar to Piracetam. It is purported to be 1000 times more potent than Piracetam and is used to boost cognitive function, mental performance, alertness, and focus. It may also help with memory recall, learning rate, and reduce cognitive decline. PRE-084 is typically taken in dosages of 10-20mg daily.

PRL-8-53

PRL-8-53 (Methyl 3-[2-[benzyl(methyl)amino]ethyl]benzoate) is a synthetic nootropic compound developed by Dr. Nikolaus Hansl in the 1970s. It is purported to improve memory, learning, and recall. Studies have suggested that PRL-8-53 may improve verbal and visual memory, increase focus, and reduce anxiety. It is typically taken in dosages of 5-20mg.

PWZ-029

PWZ-029 (8-chloro-3-(methoxymethyl)-5-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) is a novel nootropic compound that is being studied for its potential to improve cognitive function. It is a derivative of the racetam family and is thought to act as a positive modulator of the AMPA receptor, which is involved in memory formation and recall. Animal studies suggest that PWZ-029 may improve learning and memory, reduce anxiety, and enhance cognitive performance.

Passionflower

Passionflower (Passiflora incarnate, Passiflora, Passion vines) is a climbing vine native to the United States and South America. It has long been used in herbal medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia, and restlessness. It is also a nootropic herb, with studies showing that it may help reduce stress, improve mood, and reduce anxiety and depression. Passionflower can also help improve cognitive performance, reduce fatigue, and enhance focus and alertness.

Peganum Harmala

Peganum Harmala (Syrian rue, harmal, Esfand, Wild rue) is an ancient medicinal and spiritual herb native to the Middle East and North Africa. It has been used as a nootropic for centuries and is known to increase mental clarity and alertness, improve memory and learning, and reduce anxiety and stress. It is also said to enhance creativity and spiritual awareness.

Pemoline

Pemoline (Cylert, Pheniminooxazolidinone) is a stimulant drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also used in some countries as a nootropic to improve mental performance, alertness, and concentration. It works by stimulating the central nervous system and increasing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Pemoline has been linked to liver toxicity, so it is important to consult with a medical professional before taking it.

Periwinkle

Periwinkle (Vinca) is a flowering plant native to Europe and North Africa. Its leaves and stems have been used in traditional medicine to treat a range of conditions. It is also a nootropic, with potential benefits including improved memory and cognitive performance, enhanced learning and focus, and reduced anxiety and stress. Periwinkle is generally considered safe when taken in small doses, but it can have adverse effects when taken in high doses.

Phenibut

Phenibut (Anvifen, Fenibut, Noofen, β-Phenyl-GABA, Aminophenylbutyric acid) is a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. It is used in Russia to treat anxiety, depression, insomnia, and other psychological and neurological disorders. It is also used as a nootropic to reduce stress, improve mental clarity and focus, and enhance mood and motivation. However, it can be habit-forming and should be used with caution.

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine ((S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid) is an essential amino acid found naturally in many foods and also available in dietary supplement form. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, and is believed to have nootropic properties. Phenylalanine has been studied for its potential to improve cognitive function, memory, and mood, as well as reduce stress and anxiety.

Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam (Fonturacetam, Phenotropil, Carphedon, (R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a nootropic of the racetam family, derived from Piracetam. It is reported to be more neuroprotective than Piracetam and has psychostimulatory properties. Its benefits include combating physical and mental fatigue, enhancing memory, mood and focus, facilitating learning and retention, reducing anxiety and depression, helping with epilepsy treatment, and increasing physical performance.

Phosphatidylcholine

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a phospholipid found in the cell membrane of all human cells and is a major component of the brain. It is a source of the nutrient choline, which is essential for normal brain functioning. Phosphatidylcholine is a nootropic supplement that may help improve memory, focus, concentration, and mental clarity. It may also reduce anxiety and stress, increase energy, and support healthy brain aging.

Picamilon

Picamilon (N-nicotinoyl-GABA, Pycamilon, Pikamilon) is a synthetic nootropic drug that was developed in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s. It is a combination of niacin (vitamin B3) and GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid). It is purported to improve cognitive function, reduce anxiety, increase energy levels, and enhance mood. Picamilon is thought to be a more effective and better-tolerated alternative to other nootropics.

Pine Bark Extract

Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract) is an extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree. It is a natural nootropic that is rich in antioxidants and is said to reduce inflammation, improve circulation, and enhance cognitive function. It is purported to boost memory, concentration, and focus, and may help reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and ADHD.

Piracetam

Piracetam (Breinox, Dinagen, Lucetam, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Oikamid) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the racetam family that may boost mental performance. It is purported to improve memory recall, increase learning rate, and reduce cognitive decline. It is most commonly used for breath-holding attacks, seizure disorder (epilepsy), dizziness (vertigo), and a learning disorder marked by difficulty reading. Piracetam is typically taken in dosages of 1.2-9.6g daily. It affects mental function in healthy volunteers and may offer brain health and cognitive benefits.

Pramiracetam

Pramiracetam (Pramistar) is a synthetic nootropic drug of the racetam family. It is purported to improve memory recall, increase learning rate, and reduce cognitive decline. It is most commonly used for breath-holding attacks, seizure disorder (epilepsy), dizziness (vertigo), and a learning disorder marked by difficulty reading. Pramiracetam is typically taken in dosages of 400-600mg daily. It is reported to be more potent than Piracetam and may offer enhanced mental focus and clarity, improved memory and concentration, and enhanced learning and intelligence.

Prolintane

Prolintane (Catovit, Katovit, Promotil, Villescon) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. It is a stimulant and cognitive enhancer that is purported to improve mental performance and reduce fatigue. It may also improve memory and focus, reduce anxiety and depression, and increase physical performance. It is typically taken in dosages of 20-50 mg daily.

Propylphenidate

Propylphenidate (PPH) is a novel stimulant drug of the phenethylamine class. It is a derivative of methylphenidate and is reported to be a potent nootropic and stimulant. Propylphenidate is said to boost mood, energy, and focus, as well as enhance memory and cognitive function. It is typically taken in dosages of 10-30mg.

Psychobiotics

Psychobiotics are a type of probiotic that has been specifically formulated to improve mental health. They are made up of live bacteria and yeast that have been shown to have a beneficial effect on the gut-brain axis. Studies have shown that they can help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as improve cognitive function, memory, and mood.

Pterostilbene

Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring compound found in blueberries and other plants. It is a polyphenol antioxidant with potential nootropic benefits, such as improved cognitive performance, enhanced focus and concentration, better memory recall, and improved mood. It may also help protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ, Methoxatin) is a vitamin-like compound found in some plants, bacteria, and animal tissue. It is an antioxidant that may have nootropic effects, including improved cognitive function, better memory, and enhanced focus and concentration. PQQ has also been found to protect cells from damage and may help reduce inflammation and improve mitochondrial function.

Quercetin

Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone) is a plant flavonoid found in many fruits, vegetables, and grains. It is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound that may offer a range of health benefits, including improved cognitive function. Studies have found that quercetin may boost memory, reduce inflammation, improve mood, and enhance focus, concentration, and reaction time.

Quetiapine

Quetiapine (Seroquel, Seroquel XR, Temprolide) is an atypical antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. It is also sometimes used as an off-label nootropic to reduce anxiety and improve cognition. Quetiapine has been reported to improve mood, reduce stress, and enhance cognitive functioning, including memory and attention.

R-Alpha-Lipoic Acid

R-Alpha-Lipoic Acid (α-lipoic acid, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), thioctic acid) is an antioxidant that is naturally produced in the body and is also available in dietary supplement form. It is used for a variety of purposes, including to improve cognitive function and memory, reduce cognitive decline, and treat Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive disorders. R-ALA also helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, and may help reduce inflammation and improve nerve function.

RO-4491533

RO-4491533 (4-[3-(2,6-dimethylpyridin-4-yl)phenyl]-7-methyl-8-trifluoromethyl-1,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2-one) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. It is reported to be more potent than Piracetam, and is purported to improve memory, focus, and concentration. It is also said to reduce anxiety and depression, and to have neuroprotective properties. Studies are limited, but it is believed to be safe and effective when taken in the recommended dosages.

RO4938581

RO4938581 (HF59BT62UG, 579482-31-8) is a nootropic compound developed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals. It is an ampakine that acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the glutamate receptors AMPA and kainate. It is thought to enhance cognitive functions such as memory, learning, and focus, and has even been proposed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.

Razobazam

Razobazam (3,8-dimethyl-4-phenyl-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-b][1,4]diazepine-5,7-dione) is a nootropic drug prescribed to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. It may improve memory, attention, and alertness in people with dementia. It has also been studied for its potential to improve cognitive function in healthy people, although its effects have not been as well-documented. Common side effects include nausea, dizziness, headache, and fatigue.

Resveratrol

Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol found in red grapes, red wine, and some other plants. It is a powerful antioxidant and has been studied for its potential anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties. It is also a nootropic, with potential benefits such as improved cognitive function, enhanced memory, and increased focus and concentration.

Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola Rosea (Golden root, Arctic root, Rose root, Lignum rhodium) is an herb that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. It is a nootropic that is believed to boost mental performance, reduce stress, increase energy and focus, and improve physical performance. Studies have found that Rhodiola Rosea can help reduce fatigue, improve mood, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve cognitive function.

Rimonabant

Rimonabant (SR141716, Acomplia, Zimulti) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, developed for the treatment of obesity and smoking cessation. It has been studied for its potential nootropic effects, such as improved memory and enhanced cognitive performance. However, due to its side effects, it has been withdrawn from the market.

Rosemary

Rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus, Rosmarinus officinalis) is an herb native to the Mediterranean region. It has been used for centuries in cooking and as a medicinal herb. It is also a nootropic herb that has been used to improve memory, focus, concentration, and mental clarity. Rosemary may also help reduce anxiety and stress, enhance cognitive performance, and improve mood.

S-Adenosyl Methionine

S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM, SAMe, SAM-e, AdoMet, Ademethionine) is a naturally occurring molecule found in all living cells. It is a popular nootropic supplement that has been used to improve mood and cognition. It is believed to help protect neurons from oxidative damage and increase levels of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine. It may also help with depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues.

SH-053-R-CH3-2′F

SH-053-R-CH3-2′F (also known as 2′F-SH-053-R-CH3) is a nootropic drug developed by the Japanese pharmaceutical company Shionogi. It is a cholinergic compound that is reported to improve cognitive function, learning, and memory. It is also said to be neuroprotective and to reduce anxiety and depression. In addition, it may improve physical performance, reduce fatigue, and enhance sleep quality.

Sakae Naa

Sakae Naa (Combretum quadrangulare) is an herbal nootropic from Southeast Asia that has been used for centuries in traditional medicine. It is known for its ability to improve mental clarity, focus, and concentration, as well as reduce stress and anxiety. It is also used to boost energy levels and physical performance.

Sceletium Tortuosum

Sceletium Tortuosum (Mesembryanthemum tortuosum, Kanna, Channa, Kougoed) is a traditional South African medicinal herb with a long history of use. It is known for its nootropic properties, including stress and anxiety relief, improved mood, better focus and concentration, and improved sleep. It is also used to treat depression, fatigue, and mental exhaustion.

Schizandrol A

Schizandrol A (2′,3′,4′,1″,2″,3″-hexamethoxy-6, 7-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3-cyclooctadien-6-ol) is a nootropic compound extracted from the Schisandra chinensis plant. It has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries and is now increasingly used as a nootropic supplement. Its purported benefits include improved cognitive function, increased mental clarity, better focus, and improved memory and learning. It is also said to reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, and protect the brain and nervous system.

Selegiline

Selegiline (L-deprenyl, Eldepryl, Emsam) is a nootropic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes prescribed for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and depression. It increases the availability of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help with memory and focus. Selegiline is also used to enhance cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and alertness.

Sildenafil

Sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio) is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is also being studied as a potential nootropic drug, as it has been found to improve cognitive function and memory in animal studies. It is thought to increase cerebral blood flow and protect against cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

St. John’s Wort

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an herbal supplement used to treat depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. It is also used as a nootropic to improve mental performance, focus, and concentration. It is believed to work by increasing the levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain. It is also said to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties.

Stablon

Stablon (Tianeptine, Coaxil) is an anti-depressant drug of the tricyclic antidepressant class. It has been used as a nootropic to improve cognitive function and memory, increase focus and attention, improve mood, reduce stress and anxiety, and treat depression. It is also used to treat asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions.

Sulbutiamine

Sulbutiamine (Arcalion, Enerion, Bisibuthiamine) is a synthetic derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamine) that is purported to improve cognitive function, memory, and mood. Studies have found that it may help reduce fatigue and improve alertness, mental clarity, and concentration. It may also help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Tadalafil

Tadalafil (Cialis, Cidala, Adcirca) is a prescription medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also used off-label to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. It may also have nootropic benefits, such as increased alertness, improved focus, and improved cognitive performance.

Tannic Acid

Tannic acid (Tannimum, Gallotannin, Gallotannic acid, Acidum tannicum, Oak bark tannin) is a polyphenol found in plants and fruits, such as grapes, apples, and tea leaves. It is used as a nootropic to improve cognitive function, mental performance, and alertness. It has also been studied for its potential to reduce inflammation, improve memory, and protect against neurodegenerative diseases.

Taurine

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is an amino acid found in the body, particularly in the brain and heart. It is a common ingredient in energy drinks and is believed to have nootropic effects. It has been reported to increase alertness, focus, and concentration, reduce fatigue and improve mood. Taurine is also believed to enhance physical performance and reduce stress.

Theanine

Theanine (L-theanine, Suntheanine, L-γ-glutamylethylamide, N5-ethyl-L-glutamine) is an amino acid found in green tea and certain mushrooms. It is known to reduce stress, improve mood, and enhance mental performance. Studies suggest that theanine may help improve memory, focus, and alertness, reduce anxiety and stress, and improve sleep quality. It is typically taken in dosages of 100-200mg daily.

Theobromine

Theobromine (Xantheose, 3,7-dimethylxanthine) is an alkaloid found in the cacao plant and is a mild stimulant. It is found in chocolate, tea, and other plants. It is considered a nootropic because it can improve mental performance, alertness, and focus. It is also reported to reduce fatigue, improve mood, and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Tolibut

Tolibut (3-(p-tolyl)-4-aminobutyric acid (or β-(4-methylphenyl)-GABA) is a nootropic drug used to treat muscle spasms, pain, and neurological disorders. It is reported to have a calming effect on the central nervous system, improve mood and alertness, and reduce anxiety and depression. Tolibut may also reduce fatigue, improve cognitive function, and help with the treatment of epilepsy.

Tropicamide

Tropicamide (Mydriacyl, Mydrum, Ocu Tropic) is a short-acting anticholinergic drug used to dilate the pupil before an eye exam. It is sometimes used as a nootropic due to its ability to reduce fatigue and improve concentration and alertness. However, it is not recommended for long-term use as it can lead to adverse effects such as dry mouth and blurred vision.

Tryptophan

Tryptophan (2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid) is an essential amino acid found in many foods. It is also a nootropic that is used to enhance cognitive function, improve mood, and reduce stress and anxiety. Tryptophan is thought to help with sleep, depression, and anxiety, and may also help with weight loss, reduce pain, and boost the immune system. It is typically taken in dosages of 500-1000mg daily.

Turmeric

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a spice that has been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine. It is also a nootropic that may help improve cognitive function and memory. It is rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, and has been shown to support brain health and reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline. It may also help reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, and increase alertness and focus.

Tyrosine

Tyrosine (L-tyrosine, Tyr, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, (S)-Tyrosine) is an amino acid that is used to make proteins and is found in many foods. It is also used as a dietary supplement to improve alertness, attention, and focus, reduce stress, and enhance mood. It is thought to work by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, alertness, and focus.

URB-597

URB-597 (KDS-4103) is a synthetic drug that acts as a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor. It is being studied as a potential nootropic to improve cognitive performance, reduce anxiety and depression, and promote neurogenesis. URB-597 has been shown to have anxiolytic effects in animal studies and may help reduce pain and inflammation.

Uridine

Uridine (symbol U or Urd) is a nootropic supplement that is naturally found in the body and is also available as a dietary supplement. It is purported to improve memory and cognitive function, reduce depression and anxiety, and increase motivation and focus. Uridine is believed to work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, which may help to improve communication between neurons and enhance overall brain function.

Valerian

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerian root, Caprifoliaceae) is an herb native to Europe and Asia that has been used for centuries to treat insomnia, anxiety, and other ailments. It is also used as a nootropic to improve sleep quality and reduce stress and anxiety. Valerian has calming and sedative effects, and is thought to work by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. It is typically taken as a tea, tincture, or supplement.

Vardenafil

Vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn, Vivanza) is a prescription medication used to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). It is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor that works by increasing blood flow to the penis to help achieve and maintain an erection. Vardenafil is not a nootropic and does not have any nootropic benefits.

Vasopressin

Vasopressin (Antidiuretic hormone, ADH, Arginine vasopressin (AVP), or Argipressin) is a peptide hormone released by the hypothalamus that acts as a neurotransmitter. It is involved in many physiological processes, including the regulation of water balance, blood pressure, and emotional responses. As a nootropic, it can help improve memory, learning, and concentration. It has also been found to improve alertness, reduce stress and anxiety, and increase emotional stability.

Vinpocetine

Vinpocetine (Ethyl apovincaminate, Cavinton, Intelectol) is a synthetic alkaloid derived from the periwinkle plant and is used as a nootropic to improve cognitive function and memory. It is believed to increase cerebral blood flow, enhance memory, and increase alertness, focus, and concentration. It is also used to treat symptoms of cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke, Alzheimer’s, and dementia.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A (Retinol) is a fat-soluble vitamin found in many foods and supplements. It is essential for healthy vision, immune system, and skin health. It is also a nootropic, as it has been found to improve cognitive performance, memory, and focus. Vitamin A may also help reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which can lead to a better overall cognitive function.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), is an essential nutrient and a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. It is important for energy production, metabolism, and cognitive function. Vitamin B1 is a nootropic that may help to improve mental clarity, focus, and overall cognitive health. It may also help to reduce fatigue, depression, and anxiety.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is an essential vitamin found in animal-derived foods. It is important for the healthy functioning of the brain, nervous system, and blood cells. It is also a nootropic as it helps with mental focus, alertness, and concentration. Vitamin B12 is also purported to improve mood and reduce fatigue, as well as reduce the risk of cognitive decline.

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic acid, Nicotinamide, Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid) is an essential vitamin that the body needs for proper functioning. It is found in many foods and is also available as a dietary supplement. Vitamin B3 is known to have nootropic properties and is used to improve mental performance, focus, and concentration. It may also help with reducing anxiety and depression, improve cognitive function, and reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is an essential vitamin found in many foods and is also available in supplement form. It is important for energy production, hormone synthesis, and healthy brain function. Vitamin B5 is sometimes referred to as the “anti-stress” vitamin, as it may help reduce stress and anxiety. It is also known to improve focus, concentration, and mental performance, as well as boost energy levels and mood.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. It is an essential nutrient that plays a role in many bodily functions, including mood regulation, cognitive function, and energy production. Vitamin B6 is a popular nootropic supplement that is used to improve mental performance and reduce fatigue. It is also used to help with sleep, mood, and anxiety.

Vitamin B8

Vitamin B8 (Inositol, myo-inositol) is a water-soluble B-vitamin that is involved in many cellular processes. It is found naturally in many foods and is available as a dietary supplement. It is used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is also used as a nootropic to improve memory and cognitive performance.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folacin, Folate) is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for many bodily processes. It is found in food and can also be taken in supplement form. Vitamin B9 is important for the formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis and repair, and cell growth. It is also a nootropic and has been found to improve cognitive function, enhance mood, reduce anxiety, and improve memory.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (Calciferol, Cholecalciferol) is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in the body. It helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus, which are important for bone health. Vitamin D can also be found in nootropic supplements, as it is believed to play a role in cognitive enhancement, mood, and mental performance. Studies have suggested that Vitamin D may help reduce the risk of depression, improve memory and learning, and protect against age-related cognitive decline.

Withania Somnifera

Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha, Winter cherry) is an herb traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine. It is also a popular nootropic supplement that has been used to improve mental performance, reduce stress and anxiety, boost immunity, and promote longevity. It may also improve memory, concentration, and focus, as well as reduce inflammation and improve heart health.

Yerba Mate

Yerba Mate (Yerba-maté, Ilex paraguariensis) is a traditional South American beverage made from the dried leaves of a plant of the same name. It is known for its high concentration of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, and has been used for centuries as a stimulant and nootropic. It is reported to improve mental clarity, focus and alertness, reduce fatigue, and boost mood and energy.

Yohimbine HCL

Yohimbine HCL (Quebrachine) is an alkaloid derived from the bark of the Yohimbe tree, native to Central Africa. It is commonly used as a nootropic to improve cognitive function, focus, and alertness. It is also used to treat erectile dysfunction, as it can increase blood flow to the penis. Yohimbine HCL may also help reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, and enhance fat burning.

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