Optimal Forms of Choline & Top Choline Supplements to Buy (Research-Based)

Updated on March 11, 2024
 by — reviewed by Jason Williams, PhD (Contributor: George Collins / Editor: Yoko Hill)
Abstract artistic representation of the cognitive benefits and brain enhancement associated with top choline supplements.

We give you a breakdown of the forms of choline you can buy, and how to find an optimal supplement to buy. Find out as we uncover the benefits of different sources of choline and how they work in the brain.

Choline is a component of phosphatidylcholine, and it is a water-soluble essential nutrient that was first discovered in the early 1800s. It is most commonly found in food, including meats, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Choline is necessary for the production of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter involved in memory, learning, and muscle control. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure of cell membranes and in the production of lipids (fats).

While choline is found in a variety of foods, some people may not get enough of it from their diet and may need to supplement. Choline supplements for humans are available in a variety of forms, including capsules, tablets, powders, and liquids.

Studies have shown that choline is effective in treating a variety of conditions, including memory loss (1) liver disease (2), and high cholesterol.

Hence, with evidence of its potential, it’s no surprise that choline as a supplement is growing in popularity as a source for improving health.

Pure Nootropics Optimal Choline Complex

Pure Nootropics offers an optimal choline supplement called Optimal Choline Complex. Their supplement contains compounds that may improve cognition and promote mood support. Their Optimal Choline Complex contains both CDP Choline (also known as Citicoline) and Alpha GPC, the most powerful type of choline.


Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex is made from a combination of the purest forms of choline.


Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex supplement contains a potent source of choline, citicoline. Citicoline is established as a source of choline that offers both nutritional benefits and nootropic properties. Citicoline is characterized as a brain nutrient that works to improve cognitive function, focus, health, and mental energy (3).

CDP choline is a critical building block for brain cell structure and function, playing an important role in cognition.

Cerebral metabolism increases after taking this substance due to its ability to increase the production of structural phospholipids within neural membranes which can be found throughout your entire body’s system – not just inside nerve endings as some people think (4).

This means that choline has a significant impact on general health too because it helps regulate things like moods or blood pressure levels by acting directly onto neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

Hence, the presence of citicoline works to ensure a regulated supply of CDP-choline which helps to support the growth and regeneration of synapses and neuronal membranes located in the brain. The result of citicoline’s effect of boosting phospholipid metabolism is an increase in brain function such as memory and improved brain health.

Citicoline has also been shown in some studies to protect cell membranes by accelerating the resynthesis of phospholipids and suppressing the release of fatty acids, stabilizing them, and protecting against free radical generation (5).

These effects aid in maintaining brain health and promoting healthy neuronal signaling and neurotransmitter production. Its protective properties work to improve neuroplasticity which helps to ensure the maintained restoration and growth of healthy neurons.

The intake of citicoline may also help to boost mood. Studies have shown that citicoline is effective in enhancing levels of dopamine in the brain (6).

Alpha GPC

Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex supplement contains another potent choline source, Alpha-GPC. Alpha GPC is characterized as a choline source that provides nootropic benefits as a result of its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier also referred to as BBB (7).

It is a choline-containing phospholipid that is naturally present in the brain. Alpha GPC plays an important role in brain cell membranes and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Alpha GPC is also the precursor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in memory and learning.

Supplementing with Alpha GPC has been shown to increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain, and to improve cognitive function in elderly adults.

These beneficial effects are thought to be mediated by alpha GPC’s ability to increase levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain. NGF is a protein that promotes the growth and survival of neurons. Therefore, by increasing levels of NGF, alpha GPC may help to protect the brain from damage and improve cognitive function (8).


Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex contains 60 capsules for 60 servings. As the product is classified as a dietary supplement, it is recommended that 1 capsule be taken daily.

You get 200 mg of Citicoline and 100 mg of Alpha GPC in one (1) dose.

It is advised that the capsules be taken with a meal to accelerate its effects of stimulating acetylcholine replenishment and synthesis. This acceleration leads to the promotion of receptor growth which works to increase brain nutrient levels.

Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex supplement offers a flexible dosage. This makes it an ideal standalone choline to take alone as well as an ideal supplement for stacking as it works well with a range of other products.

It’s important to note that the dosage should be taken as recommended by the instructions or as recommended by a healthcare professional. You should not exceed the intake of 2 capsules within 24 hours as this may lead to health complications.

Side Effects

It’s advised that this supplement should not be taken by anyone pregnant, breastfeeding, or under the age of 18. If you’re unsure about whether choline supplements are right for you, be sure to seek advice from your healthcare practitioner for more information.

It’s important to note that exceeding the recommended dosage may result in experiencing side effects that may include:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Increased salivation
  • Fishy body odor
  • Hypotension
  • Liver toxicity

It’s worth pointing out that if you’re looking to get all the nootropic benefits of choline, it’s hard to get the recommended dose through food sources. Hence, the best option is to take choline via supplementing.


Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex is designed to complete acetylcholine replenishment in order to promote balance and improve essential neurotransmitter levels and other important brain functions.

This product contains properties that make it an ideal supplement for using to improve cognitive functions such as memory, focus, and reducing anxiety to improve mood. Containing Alpha GPC, Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex supplement is highly effective in supporting the nervous system and improving brain function.

What to Consider When Considering an Optimal Supplement that’s the Best For You

  • Form – Choline supplements come in all different forms, whether it be as a powdered extract or a capsule. Choline is most commonly come in pill form as a capsule or a tablet. How you choose to take your supplements is something to consider if, for say, you have trouble swallowing pills. It’s also important to consider whether you require supplements that align with your dietary requirements if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. Be sure to check the ingredients contained in the supplements and their outer coating.
  • Dosage – The recommended dosage for choline supplements can range anywhere from 100 mg to 650 mg per serving. If you are unsure about what the recommended dosage is for you, be sure to consult your healthcare practitioner for guidance.
  • Nootropic – Choline is considered a powerful nootropic for improving brain health and cognitive functions. It’s a nutrient that aids in the maintenance of liver and brain function.

Types of Choline Commonly Found in Supplements

  • Choline bitartrate – is considered to be the simplest form. With a relatively high density, it’s characterized as an effective supplement as a choline source for increasing nutrient levels. However, human studies show that it is ineffective in producing nootropic effects as it is inefficient in its attempt at crossing the blood-brain barrier (9). Unable to do so, choline bitartrate is ineffective in improving cognitive performance.
  • Alpha-GPC – is similar to choline bitartrate in its density. However, it is more effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier which enables it to produce nootropic effects. Studies show that Alpha-GPC’s nootropic properties may aid in alleviating cognitive impairment, and improve brain functions such as improving memory, concentration, and attention (10). With the results of effective research, Alpha-GPC is characterized as one of the optimal choline forms.
  • Citicoline – is another powerful choline source. Though not as potent as Alpha-GPC, Citicoline is effective in producing regenerative effects that aid in improving brain health and function. It works by increasing the levels of essential phospholipids in the brain which helps to repair damaged cell membranes and improve communication between cells (11). CDP-Choline is one of the most effective nootropics available, but it can be pricey.

Where to Buy These Supplements Online?

Choline-containing supplements are widely available in stores and online. However, as a powerful nutrient, it’s important that you ensure you are getting a high-quality product that is legitimate.

Always take a look at the reviews and feedback of products to check that it aligns with what you’re looking for. It’s also always a good idea to check for relevant validations and certifications to check the quality of the product.

Pure Nootropics is a leading nootropic brand that offers fast worldwide shipping. They offer a wide range of nootropics made from cutting-edge natural ingredients.

Their products are made of the most effective compounds and ingredients and are validated and tested by independent and accredited labs to prove their standard of quality.

Reddit Reviews About Supplements Containing Choline


Citicoline experience – “I have used it for several months and I definitely notice improved cognition. I remember things easier and can put together concepts to make quick decisions…”


Alpha-GPC experience – “What I was most surprised by was its ability to boost athletic performance and recovery. You feel more in control of your body and how it moves, the fine muscle movements and coordination are increased substantially.”

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Your questions answered.

Is it Okay For Children to Take Choline as a Supplement?

As choline is classified as a necessary nutritional compound for the development of the brain and body, studies show that children can benefit from the effects of choline. However, it’s important that you consult with a pediatrician before starting a child on any supplement.

How Long Does It Take for Ingested Choline to Take Effect?

Choline when ingested typically take effect within a few minutes to a few hours. The exact time frame depends on the individual supplement and the person taking it. Some people may notice an immediate effect, while others may not notice any effect for a few days.

Are There Any Interactions Between Choline and Other Medications?

Yes, there can be interactions between choline and other medications. Some of the potential interactions between choline-containing supplements and other medications include anticholinergic drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease.

What Are the Long-Term Effects of Taking Choline?

There is evidence that choline supplementation can have long-term benefits for brain health and memory. Choline has also been shown to improve symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of cognitive decline. In addition, choline may also help protect the brain from age-related damage when used long-term.

How Do I Know if I Need to Take Choline?

Health professionals generally recommend consuming choline through diet rather than taking a supplement. However, if you don’t eat animal products (eggs and meat) you may not be able to get enough choline through diet alone and may need to supplement.

How Can I Get More Choline in My Diet?

Choline is an essential nutrient found in many foods, but it is especially abundant in eggs, beef liver, and fish. You can also find choline in some supplements, such as lecithin. The best way to get more choline in your diet is to eat foods that are rich in this nutrient.

What Is a Choline Deficiency?

Though rare, some people have a choline deficiency.

Having a choline deficiency can have significant harmful effects on the body causing damage to areas of the body such as the liver.

Common symptoms associated with choline deficiency include:

  • Muscle damage
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Who’s at Risk of Choline Deficiency?

Studies show that there are certain groups of people that are more at risk of having a choline deficiency (12).

These categories include:

  • Pregnant women – This frequently occurs as a result of women requiring higher levels of choline as a result of pregnancy.
  • Athletes – This may occur as the result of the performance of endurance exercises which reduce the level of choline in the body.
  • Postmenopausal women – This may occur as a result of the decline in estrogen production which plays a significant role in choline levels.

Choline is an essential component that the body requires in order to maintain healthy bodily functions. Whilst choline levels can be increased by eating the right foods and having a balanced diet, those with low levels of choline may need a little extra help.

Choline via supplementation provide a solution of increasing nutritional value as well as offering a host of additional benefits. The supplements we’ve shown you are some great options for cognitive health and function. Each contains different sources of choline that provide nootropic benefits and work to improve brain health.

In Summary

Choline helps to maintain the structure of cell membranes and is involved in the production of acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in memory and learning.

There are different types and forms of choline supplements available, including Alpha GPC, Citicoline, and Pure Nootropics’ Choline Complex which are all great choices for those looking for a quality way to increase intake of choline.

When choosing one of these supplements, it is important to consider the type of choline, dosage, and your own personal needs.

The best choline option for you may not be the same as the one for someone else.

If you’re looking for a quality choline-containing supplement to improve your cognitive performance, then Pure Nootropics’ Choline Complex is a great option.

Sources, Studies, and Scientific Research
  1. Bekdash, Rola Aldana. “Choline and the Brain: An Epigenetic Perspective.” Advances in neurobiology vol. 12 (2016): 381-99. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28383-8_21 ↩
  2. Mehedint, Mihai G, and Steven H Zeisel. “Choline’s role in maintaining liver function: new evidence for epigenetic mechanisms.” Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care vol. 16,3 (2013): 339-45. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283600d46 ↩
  3. Gareri, Pietro et al. “The role of citicoline in cognitive impairment: pharmacological characteristics, possible advantages, and doubts for an old drug with new perspectives.” Clinical interventions in aging vol. 10 1421-9. 3 Sep. 2015, doi:10.2147/CIA.S87886 ↩
  4. Secades, J J, and G Frontera. “CDP-choline: pharmacological and clinical review.” Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology vol. 17 Suppl B (1995): 1-54. ↩
  5. Zweifler, Richard M. “Membrane stabilizer: citicoline.” Current medical research and opinion vol. 18 Suppl 2 (2002): s14-7. doi:10.1185/030079902125000679 ↩
  6. Wignall, Nicholas D, and E Sherwood Brown. “Citicoline in addictive disorders: a review of the literature.” The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse vol. 40,4 (2014): 262-8. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.925467 ↩
  7. Lee, Song Hee et al. “Late treatment with choline alfoscerate (l-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, α-GPC) increases hippocampal neurogenesis and provides protection against seizure-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairment.” Brain research vol. 1654,Pt A (2017): 66-76. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2016.10.011 ↩
  8. Catanesi, M., d’Angelo, M., Antonosante, A., Castelli, V., Alfonsetti, M., Benedetti, E., Desideri, G., Ferri, C., & Cimini, A. (2020). Neuroprotective potential of choline alfoscerate against β‐amyloid injury: Involvement of neurotrophic signals. Cell Biology International, 44(8), 1734–1744. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11369 ↩
  9. Lippelt, D P et al. “No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.” PloS one vol. 11,6 e0157714. 24 Jun. 2016, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157714 ↩
  10. Alpha-GPC (Choline Alfoscerate). Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2022, from https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/ratings/alpha-gpc-choline-alfoscerate ↩
  11. Adibhatla, R M et al. “Effects of citicoline on phospholipid and glutathione levels in transient cerebral ischemia.” Stroke vol. 32,10 (2001): 2376-81. doi:10.1161/hs1001.096010 ↩
  12. Zeisel, Steven H, and Kerry-Ann da Costa. “Choline: an essential nutrient for public health.” Nutrition reviews vol. 67,11 (2009): 615-23. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x ↩