In this review, we look at the 15 best nootropics for your brain, how they work, and what they are used for. We went over the benefits of these brain supplements, the best dosage, where to buy them online, and what side effects you may run into when using smart drugs.
Nootropics are a new class of brain enhancers that can increase focus and productivity, enhance memory, and even improve mood.
There are a number of brain supplements and smart drugs that have been proven to increase mental performance and help you reach your goals.
But how do you know which ones are actually the best nootropics on the market today?
We’ve compiled a list of the top 15 brain-boosting nootropics that will help you achieve the best possible results.
So let's take a look at the best nootropics of 2022 down below.
The Best Nootropics of 2022
According to scientific evidence, studies, and customer reviews, the 15 best nootropics of 2022 are:
- Mind Lab Pro
- Alpha Brain
- Brain Pill
- Qualia Mind
- Hunter Focus
- Bacopa Monnieri
All of the 15 nootropics have been thoroughly researched and have a variety of benefits for cognitive function. If you are looking for nootropics to improve your memory, focus, or energy levels, any of these would be a great choice.
The list contains nootropics that come in both pill and powder form, as well as nootropics that are derived from natural ingredients and synthetic nootropics. So if you're not a big fan of taking pills, or synthetic nootropics, there are still plenty of options for you.
1. NooCube: Best Nootropic Overall
According to our in-depth research and testing, NooCube is the best nootropic currently on the market. NooCube is a well-rounded nootropics formula that's safe for daily use and only contains high-quality natural ingredients, such as L-Tyrosine and Huperzine A, that are scientifically proven to be effective Xu, S S et al. “Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease.” Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica vol. 16,5 (1995): 391-5.
The benefits of NooCube include enhancing memory and cognitive function, improving mental clarity and focus throughout the day, and boosting overall brain health and brain cell health for greater durability over time.
It is good to note that NooCube improves cognitive performance, mental function, and heightens focus without caffeine to give you jitters. There are no known side effects associated with this product.
- Improves communication between brain cells
- Improves memory and overall cognition
- Protects your brain from oxidative damage (OS)
- Repairs damaged neurons
- All-in-one nootropic blend
- Promotes new cell generation
- Decreases stress, anxiety, and fatigue
- Might be too pricey if you're on a budget
2. Vyvamind: Best Nootropic For Motivation
According to our research, Vyvamind is the best nootropic for motivation. It's a simple, potent, and effective nootropic blend suitable for daily use.
Vyvamind is one of the purest nootropics as it only contains 6 active ingredients:
- Vitamin B6
- Vitamin B12
- Citicoline (CDP Choline)
- Caffeine Anhydrous
Citicoline has been scientifically proven to increase mental energy levels to keep you alert throughout the day Nakazaki, Eri et al. “Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” The Journal of nutrition vol. 151,8 (2021): … Learn more. It also improves focus so you can pay attention to the task at hand, and it even reduces symptoms associated with anxiety and depression.
Overall, it's a product that helps you find motivation, focus, and maintain your mental clarity.
- Scientifically proven to increase mental energy levels
- Will keep you alert throughout the day
- Contains 6 active nootropic ingredients
- It will boost your motivation and focus
- Can cause headaches in high dosages
- It may not be suitable for people sensitive to caffeine
3. Mind Lab Pro: Best Nootropic For Focus & Concentration
According to our in-depth review of Mind Lab Pro, it's one of the best nootropics for focus and concentration. As an all-in-one natural nootropic stack, Mind Lab Pro will give you the cognitive abilities you need as well as an intense focus.
The nootropic formula promotes focus and a stress-resistant success mindset and helps reduce mental fatigue.
Mind Lab Pro's enhanced cognitive function output is due to the 11 nootropic ingredients.
Bacopa Monnieri fights cognitive decline Cicero, Arrigo F G et al. “Botanicals and phytochemicals active on cognitive decline: The clinical evidence.” Pharmacological research vol. 130 (2018): 204-212. … Learn more and Rhodiola Rosea improves work capacity, focus and prevents fatigue Lekomtseva, Yevgeniya et al. “Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial.” Complementary medicine research vol. 24,1 … Learn more.
L-Theanine helps produce alpha brain waves that you need for better concentration Nobre, Anna C et al. “L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.” Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition vol. 17 Suppl 1 (2008): 167-8.. Mind Lab Pro contains no stimulants which make it safe to consume and prevents crashes.
There were no reported side effects or adverse reactions associated with any of the 11 active ingredients in this potent blend.
- Contains 11 active and proven nootropic ingredients
- Enhances cognitive function and fights cognitive decline
- Helps produce alpha brain waves for better concentration
- Contains no stimulants
- Might not be ideal if you're only looking for 1 nootropic ingredient
4. Alpha Brain: Best Nootropic For Memory
Our research and testing have shown that Alpha Brain is one of the best nootropics for memory. The potent ingredients in this supplement help improve memory, recall, and overall cognitive performance.
Alpha Brain also promotes body and DNA repair thanks to ingredients such as Cat's Claw extract Sheng, Yezhou et al. “An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.” Journal of ethnopharmacology vol. 96,3 (2005): 577-84. … Learn more and L-Leucine. The Alpha GPC in it isn't only a good choline source, but also improves physical performance Marcus, Lena et al. “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports … Learn more. This makes Alpha Brain a great choice for people who live an active lifestyle.
- Great nootropic blend for improved memory
- Helps overall cognitive function
- Reduces stress and anxiety
- Promotes body and DNA repair
- Improves physical performance
- Excellent choice for people who live an active lifestyle
- Is expensive compared to other nootropic blends
5. Brain Pill: Best Nootropic For Studying & Learning
Our analysis has shown Brain Pill to be one of the best nootropics for studying and learning abilities. Brain Pill is a scientifically proven supplement that helps to improve memory recall and retention abilities, and boosts the ability to focus on the task at hand without distractions [R].
It also improves learning capacity, reduces symptoms of anxiety or depression, and reduces brain fog caused by lack of sleep, stress, or poor diet.
In short: it's the perfect nootropic for students!
- A nootropic that helps overall cognition
- Improves memory
- Improves brain fog and retention abilities
- Reduces symptoms of anxiety and stress
- No jitters
- Perfect choice for students
- Shipping can take up to 2 weeks if you live outside the US
6. Phenylpiracetam: Best Nootropic For Energy
According to our own research and customer reviews, Phenylpiracetam is the best nootropic for energy and performance. It's both a mild stimulant and a real nootropic of the well-known Racetam family.
Phenylpiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is more potent than its parent Piracetam. In Russia, it's being sold under the brand name Nanotropil Novo and there have been several human studies that have shown improvements in cognition Malykh, Andrei G, and M Reza Sadaie. “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.” Drugs vol. 70,3 (2010): 287-312. … Learn more.
If you're looking for a nootropic that gives you a boost in both energy and cognition, Phenylpiracetam is the best choice.
- Boosts overall brain function
- Reduces dyslexia symptoms
- Reduces anxiety, stress, depression, and fatigue
- More potent than Piracetam
- Boosts energy levels
- No jitters
- Can be hard to get your hands on
7. Qualia Mind: Best Nootropic For Creativity
We've found Qualia Mind to be one of the best nootropics for creativity. It's a powerful nootropic supplement that contains 28 ingredients that are designed to improve cognitive functions as well as creativity.
Although Qualia Mind is an expensive nootropic, it's the one that has the most ingredients in it, including Ginkgo Biloba. If you take it, you can be certain you aren't missing out on any natural compound that's proven to improve brainpower.
- Boosts focus, memory, and mental clarity
- Supports neural pathways important for optimal cognitive function
- Contains 28 scientifically proven ingredients
- Amplifies drive, productivity, and creativity
- The most expensive nootropic blend on the market (not suitable for people on a budget)
8. Modafinil: Best Nootropic For ADHD
According to ADHD patients and our research, Modafinil is the best nootropic for ADHD and the only real alternative to Adderall.
Modafinil is a stimulant used to treat narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It is also used as a wakefulness-promoting agent. It's also a powerful cognitive enhancer that can improve focus and energy levels Battleday, R M, and A-K Brem. “Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review.” European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the … Learn more and increase mood and sense of well-being.
Mild headaches, nausea, low blood pressure, anxiety, nervousness, elevated heart rate/blood pressure, loss of appetite, and insomnia are some of the possible side effects of this drug. Also, it is known that Modafinil can cause depression in long-term users who stop taking it. So be careful with this smart drug!
- Excellent nootropic that will keep you awake and alert
- Boosts mental clarity and focus
- Extremely potent
- Increases mood and sense of well-being
- A great choice for people with ADHD
- Can put a strain on the liver in high dosages
Aniracetam has been found to be the best nootropic for anxiety and social anxiety. Users report calm focus and improved sociability after taking it. Being a Racetam, it also improves cognition Lee, C R, and P Benfield. “Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders.” Drugs … Learn more.
Aniracetam is a prescription drug in Europe that can be used to treat cognitive decline. The supplement helps to increase mental clarity and energy levels. It also helps to improve mood, which is necessary for Alzheimer's patients who are struggling with depression. Many users report feelings of energy and euphoria after using Aniracetam, which is ideal for socializing and dealing with anxiety.
- An amazing nootropic for social anxiety
- Helps increase mental clarity, energy levels, and sense of well-being
- Improves mood and combats cognitive decline
- Hard to get your hands on
- Some vendors use low-quality Aniracetam
10. Sulbutiamine: Best Nootropic For Mood & Depression
Sulbutiamine is one of the best nootropics for mood and reducing symptoms of depression. It's a natural, safe alternative to traditional anti-depressants. It has been proven to be effective in treating depression and anxiety Lương, K. vinh, & Nguyễn, L. T. (2011). The impact of thiamine treatment on generalized anxiety disorder. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 02(04), 439–443. … Learn more.
Sulbutiamine is synthetically derived from the amino acid thiamine (vitamin B1). Thiamine is an essential nutrient for the body. It's important for the conversion of carbohydrates into blood glucose, which in turn produces energy. Sulbutiamine also has neurotrophic effects on brain cells, meaning that it encourages the production of neurons in the brain.
Increased energy, mood stabilization, improved mental performance, and a more regulated appetite are some of the benefits of this nootropic supplement.
- Increases mental energy and performance
- Stabilizes mood
- Reduces the symptoms of depression
- Combats fatigue
- Hard to find high-quality Sulbutiamine
11. L-Theanine: Best Nootropic For Sleep
L-theanine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in green tea that has been shown to help improve sleep. It relaxes the mind and helps to promote deep and restful sleep. L-theanine can be taken in supplement form or simply enjoyed as part of a cup of green tea before bedtime.
In one study Hidese, Shinsuke et al. “Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Nutrients vol. 11,10 … Learn more 30 healthy adults were given either 200 mg L-theanine or a placebo daily for four weeks. The participants taking theanine took less time to fall asleep, had fewer sleep disturbances, and took fewer sleep medications compared to the placebo group.
- An amazing nootropic for sleep
- Reduces stress and relaxes the mind
- A natural nootropic found in green tea
- L-Theanine might not be as effective for everyone
12. Semax: Best Nootropic For Brain Fog
According to our research, Semax is the best nootropic for brain fog. Semax increases motivation, and working memory Panikratova, Ya R et al. “Functional Connectomic Approach to Studying Selank and Semax Effects.” Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological … Learn more improves mood, and protects against mild oxidative stress.
Semax causes the increase of dopamine and serotoninergic systems of the brain to encourage activity-dependent AMPA trafficking, which means the circuits in heavy use get cognitive priority.
It can be used for neuroprotection against glutamate neurotoxicity Medvedeva, Ekaterina V et al. “The peptide semax affects the expression of genes related to the immune and vascular systems in rat brain focal ischemia: genome-wide transcriptional … Learn more amplifying the effects of dopaminergic stimulants, and treating depression, mental stress, and ADHD.
Side effects are usually rare but may include drowsiness, headache, and dizziness.
- Semax improves the trophic supply of the brain
- It increases working memory and motivation
- It increases dopamine
- Semax protects the nervous system and prevents glutamate neurotoxicity
- High-quality Semax is hard to find online (not sold in stores either)
13. P21: Best Nootropic For Alzheimer's
Although a research chemical, P21 is the best nootropic for Alzheimer's disease, according to our analysis. P21 is a highly modified peptide nootropic, which was designed from CNTF antibodies, not Cerebrolysin.
Cerebrolysin was the motivation to research CNTF antibodies, as it was shown to be responsible for its neurogenesis elements. The ambition with the P21 nootropic drug was to "incorporate new neurons into already existing neural networks".
The P21 nootropic peptide has been studied in humans for over a decade. There are many anecdotal reports of its benefits, but no clinical trials have been done to confirm this.
- Prevents DNA damage
- Inhibits the growth of malignant cells
- Slows down the progression of Alzheimer's disease
- Needs more clinical trials to confirm the efficacy
- Only a few vendors sell P21 online
14. Hunter Focus: Best Nootropic For Gaming
Our research revealed Hunter Focus as the best nootropic for gaming due to its powerful effects on cognitive performance and speed.
Hunter Focus is a powerful cognitive enhancer with a focus on memory, concentration, and mood.
Hunter Focus is one of the most effective nootropics for older adults and professional gamers because it speeds up mental processing and improves executive brain functions.
You get all-natural ingredients that are free from soy and gluten and enhance focus. It is also safe to consume as it has no noticeable side effects like headaches and stomach upsets that you typically get from other nootropics.
- Boosts focus, memory, and mental energy for gamers
- Elevates mood and overall sense of well-being
- Great nootropics for enhanced learning and creativity
- All-natural nootropic ingredients
- Too pricey for people on a budget
15. Bacopa Monnieri: Best Natural Nootropic
In our opinion, Bacopa Monnieri is one of the best natural nootropics available. It's often used as an ingredient in natural nootropics blends, such as NooCube and Mind Lab Pro.
Bacopa Monnieri has a long history of being used as a brain enhancer McPhee, G. M., Downey, L. A., Wesnes, K. A., & Stough, C. (2021). The neurocognitive effects of bacopa monnieri and cognitive training on markers of brain microstructure in healthy older adults. … Learn more and supplement for overall brain health.
If you're looking for an all-natural smart drug, then Bacopa Monnieri is the best choice.
- A powerful antioxidant
- Reduces inflammation
- Boosts brain function
- Relieves anxiety and stress
- Reduces ADHD symptoms
- Might not be suitable for people with allergies
- Some products use low-quality Bacopa Monnieri
Best Nootropics According To Reddit
According to Reddit users, the best nootropics are:
Best Nootropics Stacks
We've found the best nootropic stacks to be the following:
NooCube is a nootropics stack that contains 9 natural ingredients to boost your brainpower and productivity. It's the most effective stack on the market today.
If you're looking for an all-natural stack, this is the one we recommend.
Phenylpiracetam + Sulbutiamine + Alpha GPC
This stack is perfect if you're looking for a boost in energy and motivation.
- Phenylpiracetam (100 mg): Phenylpiracetam acts as a mild stimulant and cognitive enhancer.
- Sulbutiamine (400 mg): Sulbutiamine eliminates fatigue and lifts your mood.
- Alpha GPC (300 mg): Alpha GPC acts as a choline source increasing acetylcholine in the brain and increasing physical performance.
Noopept + Creatine + Citicoline
This stack is the best choice if you want to be in a flow state and improve focus and concentration.
- Noopept (10 mg): Noopept enhances alpha brain waves, memory, and recall.
- Creatine HCL (500 mg): Creatine improves mitochondrial efficiency, acting directly as an antioxidant and a neuroprotectant boosting brain function.
- Citicoline (250 mg): CDP Choline increases acetylcholine and improves cognitive function.
What Are Nootropics?
Nootropics are substances that can enhance mental capabilities, including memory and cognitive performance. The word comes from the Greek noos meaning "mind" and trope, meaning "to turn." These pills may have more potential than ever before, thanks to scientific advances in the study of the brain.
However, they carry some risks. There are over 1,000 nootropics on the market, and these aren't just harmless caffeine-like compounds.
How To Choose The Right Brain Supplement?
Choosing the right brain supplement can be a difficult task. There are many different products on the market, and it can be hard to know which one is right for you.
Here are a few tips to help you choose the right brain supplement:
- Know what you want to improve. There are many different supplements that claim to improve memory, focus, or energy levels. Figure out which of these benefits you’re looking for before you start shopping for noots online.
- Do your research. Once you know what benefit you’re looking for, take some time to research the different options available. Read reviews, compare ingredients, and look for independent studies that support the efficacy of the specific nootropic.
- Start with a small dose. When you’re first starting out, it’s always best to start with a lower dose and see how your body reacts. You can always increase the dosage if you find that the initial dose isn’t giving you the desired results.
- Be patient. Nootropics are not overnight miracles. It can take weeks or even months of consistent use before you start to see the full benefits of the supplement.
- Be careful with combinations (stacks). Some nootropics work well together, but others can cancel each other out or have negative side effects when taken together. If you’re unsure about which nootropics to take together, it’s always best to consult with a doctor or certified nootropics expert.
What Are The Benefits Of Using Nootropics?
There are many potential benefits to using nootropics, also known as “smart drugs.”
Nootropics are substances that can improve cognitive function, memory, and focus Suliman, Noor Azuin et al. “Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : … Learn more. They may also help to increase intelligence and creativity. Some people use nootropics to boost their productivity, while others take them to enhance their mood or reduce stress levels.
Nootropics are thought to work by modulating neurotransmitter systems in the brain. This can lead to increased concentration and improved brain function. Also, nootropics may help protect the brain from damage caused by free radicals and other toxins.
While more research is needed to substantiate the claims about the efficacy of nootropics, there is some evidence to suggest that these substances can offer benefits for cognitive function.
Some of the potential benefits of using nootropics include:
- Improved memory
- Enhanced focus
- Increased concentration
- Improved brain function
- Protection from brain damage
- Reduced stress and anxiety
- Enhanced mood
- Increased intelligence
- Creativity boost
What Are The Side Effects Of Cognitive Enhancers?
The side effects of cognitive enhancers vary depending on the nootropic being taken.
Some common side effects of cognitive enhancers include:
- Dizziness, and stomach upset.
While most side effects are mild and temporary, some nootropics can cause more serious side effects or interact with other medications you are taking.
Be sure to talk to your doctor or healthcare provider about any potential risks before taking any cognitive enhancer.
What Are The Different Types Of Nootropics?
Nootropics can be split into four classes: blends/formulas, racetams, prescription drugs, and research chemicals.
Nootropics Blends & Formulas
A nootropic blend or formula is a combination of several different types of nootropics, such as caffeine or vitamins and amino acids, which can be taken at any time throughout the day.
Natural nootropics blends can help with energy, focus, creativity, memory, increase blood flow to the brain and help you sleep better. They work to enhance your brain function and boost your overall cognitive performance. Typically they're natural supplements with cognitive benefits that boost memory retention and improve cognitive function. They're the number one choice for safe cognitive enhancement.
The racetam family of cognitive enhancers is well known in the nootropics community. Racetams are synthetic compounds first discovered by Russia many decades ago. Piracetam is considered the "parent racetam" on which most others are based on. Today, some are over-the-counter, some are prescription drugs, and some are research chemicals.
The most popular racetams are:
Some prescription drugs are considered to be nootropics. The most popular ones are Modafinil and Armodafinil. In Russia, you can also get a prescription for Noopept, Piracetam, Semax, and others.
Research chemicals are substances that are sold for research purposes only and aren't meant for human consumption. Whether a compound is considered a research chemical, over-the-counter supplement, or a prescription drug, largely depends on where you live in the world.
How To Use Nootropics?
How you should use nootropics for the best results entirely depends on the type of nootropic you're taking. In general, they're best taken in the morning with some fat (such as fish oil or coconut oil) on an empty stomach with a glass of water.
Depending on which nootropic substances you use, you might have to cycle it to avoid tolerance.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Your most pressing questions about nootropics answered.
Are Nootropics Worth it?
Most nootropics have been scientifically proven to be safe and effective. However, some may cause negative side effects. Make sure you discuss any potential risks with your doctor.
Where Do I Start With Nootropics?
If you're just starting out with nootropics, Citicoline (Cognizin®) is the best nootropic supplement for beginners to try first. A lot of clinical research supports the benefits of this multitasking nootropic for mental energy and attention.
How Fast Do Nootropics Work?
The time it takes to see results depends on the nootropic, dosage, and the individual. In general, however, people usually report noticeable effects after two weeks of use, while some nootropics show immediate effects after just 30 minutes to an hour.
Can You Take Nootropics Every day?
Yes, you can take most nootropics every day. Nootropics are supplements that help boost brain function, memory, and concentration. They're safe and effective, so you can take them daily as part of a healthy lifestyle.
Can Nootropics Cause Brain Damage?
In short, no. The vast majority of nootropics are not toxic to the human body and brain. Some studies have shown that nootropics can help improve focus and memory, but they have no serious side effects at recommended dosages. However, some nootropics should be cycled.
Which Nootropic is Most Like Adderall?
Vyvamind is a nootropic supplement that is similar to Adderall but doesn't cause the same negative side effects as Adderall. Vyvamind is best known for its ability to increase focus, motivation, and productivity.
What Is The Most Effective Nootropic?
2. Mind Lab Pro
3. Alpha Brain
4. Brain Pill
5. Performance Lab Mind
7. Qualia Mind
When it comes to the best nootropics of 2022, there are many different products on the market to choose from. However, not all of these supplements are created equal.
Some nootropics may be more effective than others, and some may have more side effects.
We found that the best nootropic blends on the market are: Vyvamind, NooCube, and Mind Lab Pro.
These products contain a blend of effective nootropic ingredients that have been clinically proven to improve cognitive function. Additionally, they are well-tolerated and have minimal side effects.
If you’re looking for a specific nootropic to improve a specific aspect of your cognition, then you may want to consider taking a single-ingredient nootropic such as L-theanine or Bacopa Monnieri.
|↑1||Xu, S S et al. “Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease.” Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica vol. 16,5 (1995): 391-5|
|↑2||Nakazaki, Eri et al. “Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” The Journal of nutrition vol. 151,8 (2021): 2153-2160. doi:10.1093/jn/nxab119|
|↑3||Cicero, Arrigo F G et al. “Botanicals and phytochemicals active on cognitive decline: The clinical evidence.” Pharmacological research vol. 130 (2018): 204-212. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2017.12.029|
|↑4||Lekomtseva, Yevgeniya et al. “Rhodiola rosea in Subjects with Prolonged or Chronic Fatigue Symptoms: Results of an Open-Label Clinical Trial.” Complementary medicine research vol. 24,1 (2017): 46-52. doi:10.1159/000457918|
|↑5||Nobre, Anna C et al. “L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.” Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition vol. 17 Suppl 1 (2008): 167-8.|
|↑6||Sheng, Yezhou et al. “An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.” Journal of ethnopharmacology vol. 96,3 (2005): 577-84. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.002|
|↑7||Marcus, Lena et al. “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition vol. 14 39. 5 Oct. 2017, doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0196-5|
|↑8||Malykh, Andrei G, and M Reza Sadaie. “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.” Drugs vol. 70,3 (2010): 287-312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000|
|↑9||Battleday, R M, and A-K Brem. “Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review.” European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology vol. 25,11 (2015): 1865-81. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028|
|↑10||Lee, C R, and P Benfield. “Aniracetam. An overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and a review of its therapeutic potential in senile cognitive disorders.” Drugs & aging vol. 4,3 (1994): 257-73. doi:10.2165/00002512-199404030-00007|
|↑11||Lương, K. vinh, & Nguyễn, L. T. (2011). The impact of thiamine treatment on generalized anxiety disorder. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 02(04), 439–443. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcm.2011.24073|
|↑12||Hidese, Shinsuke et al. “Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Nutrients vol. 11,10 2362. 3 Oct. 2019, doi:10.3390/nu11102362|
|↑13||Panikratova, Ya R et al. “Functional Connectomic Approach to Studying Selank and Semax Effects.” Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections vol. 490,1 (2020): 9-11. doi:10.1134/S001249662001007X|
|↑14||Medvedeva, Ekaterina V et al. “The peptide semax affects the expression of genes related to the immune and vascular systems in rat brain focal ischemia: genome-wide transcriptional analysis.” BMC genomics vol. 15 228. 24 Mar. 2014, doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-228|
|↑15||McPhee, G. M., Downey, L. A., Wesnes, K. A., & Stough, C. (2021). The neurocognitive effects of bacopa monnieri and cognitive training on markers of brain microstructure in healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.638109|
|↑16||Suliman, Noor Azuin et al. “Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.” Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM vol. 2016 (2016): 4391375. doi:10.1155/2016/4391375|