Oxiracetam Review: Nootropic Benefits, Dosage, & Side Effects

This Oxiracetam review will examine the research on its benefits for cognitive enhancement, dosage, side effects, and where you can purchase Oxiracetam online.

Oxiracetam (4-Hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidine-N-acetamide or ISF 2522) is a popular smart drug that is often used to improve cognitive function and memory. It is also said to have energizing and mood-boosting effects.

Oxiracetam is a water-soluble ampakine nootropic that belongs to the racetam family of cognitive enhancers. It is structurally similar to Piracetam and Aniracetam, two other well-known nootropics.

Let's take a closer look at this popular nootropic to see what the science says and how you can use it to improve your cognitive performance.

Oxiracetam Review Summary

Oxiracetam is a powerful cognitive enhancer and nootropic supplement with a wide range of benefits for brain health. It can help improve memory, focus, and attention span and protect the brain from age-related damage. Oxiracetam is also thought to have mood-boosting effects and may help reduce anxiety.

Oxiracetam works by increasing levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

Pros:

  • Improves memory and cognitive function
  • Protects the brain from age-related damage
  • Helps reduce anxiety and improves mood
  • Boosts acetylcholine levels

Cons:

  • More research on humans is needed to establish its mechanism of action

What Is Oxiracetam?

oxiracetam structure

Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that was developed in the 1970s. It's chemically derived from Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide), whose main difference lies in adding a hydroxyl group at its core.

Oxiracetam modulates AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors [1]Copani, A et al. “Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in neuronal cultures.” Journal of neurochemistry vol. … Learn more and increases neurotransmitter release. The AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic) receptor is one of 3 types of glutamate receptors found in the brain.

Imagebuy oxiracetam online
NameOxiracetam
ClassNootropic
EffectsImproves memory, brain protection, memory retention, focus, better creativity
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Half-Life8 hours
Common Dosage700 - 2,400 mg daily
Content50 g
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It's thought that by modulating said AMPA receptors, Oxiracetam helps improve cognitive function and memory. Oxiracetam is also considered a cholinergic compound, meaning it increases levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh).

Acetylcholine is involved in many cognitive processes, including learning and memory.

How Does Oxiracetam Work In The Brain?

Oxiracetam is a nootropic that can help you stay focused and healthy. It does this through its ability to increase blood flow, bringing more oxygen-rich nutrients into your brain, which helps keep it functioning at peak performance levels.

Additionally - and most importantly - Oxiracetam works by modulating AMPA and NMDA receptors. AMPARs are known to be critical for synaptic plasticity, which is the ability of your brain to form new connections. This is what allows you to learn and retain information.

On the other hand, NMDA receptors are known to be involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP is a process that strengthens the connection between two neurons, making it easier for them to fire together in the future [2]Sumi, T., Harada, K. Mechanism underlying hippocampal long-term potentiation and depression based on competition between endocytosis and exocytosis of AMPA receptors. Sci Rep 10, 14711 (2020). … Learn more.

This process is how memories are formed and consolidated. Therefore, by modulating both AMPARs and NMDARs, Oxiracetam can help improve your overall cognitive function and memory.

Oxiracetam also increases the density of binding sites for neurotransmitters on AMPA receptors [3]Dudkin, S M et al. “Calcium entry blockers and oxiracetam have opposite effects on the density of dihydropyridine receptors in rat cerebral cortex.” Brain research vol. 525,2 (1990): … Learn more. This leads to an increase in the number of neurotransmitters that can bind to these receptors.

In other words, Oxiracetam makes it easier for your brain to send and receive messages, thus improving communication between cells which then results in enhanced memory function.

A study published in the peer-reviewed journal Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, found that Oxiracetam significantly improved the quality of life and memory function in patients with primary degenerative dementia [4]Bottini, G et al. “Oxiracetam in dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Acta neurologica Scandinavica vol. 86,3 (1992): 237-41. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.1992.tb05077.x, when given 800 mg of Oxiracetam twice daily for 12 weeks.

Oxiracetam also stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain. This, in turn, improves short-term and long-term memory and eliminates ‘brain fog.’ This mode of action also increases ACh receptors' reactivity and improves protein kinase C (PKC), which affects M1 acetylcholine receptors.

PKC and M1 receptors are both involved in learning and memory [5]Leaderbrand, Katherine et al. “Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors act in synergy to facilitate learning and memory.” Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) vol. 23,11 631-638. 17 Oct. … Learn more.

What Is Oxiracetam Used For?

The use of Oxiracetam as a medication to attenuate the symptoms of dementia has been under investigation for some time now.

oxiracetam review

One study found that Oxiracetam therapy was cognitively and behaviorally effective and safe in patients with SDAT and MID of mild to a moderate degree during a placebo-controlled trial and the relevant follow-up up to 1 year [6]Villardita, C et al. “Clinical studies with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia of mild to moderate degree.” Neuropsychobiology vol. 25,1 (1992): … Learn more.

Off-label, Oxiracetam is being used by people with ADD/ADHD for its supposed ability to improve focus and concentration. It is also taken by people who want to improve their cognitive function and memory and those seeking a general ‘brain boost.’

What Are The Benefits Of Oxiracetam For Cognition?

Even though the FDA doesn't approve its use, it works and offers various nootropic benefits. It's especially popular for the following benefits:

  • Improving memory
  • Learning enhancement
  • Enhancing verbal fluency
  • Memory retention
  • Boosting concentration and focus
  • Brain protection

Improving Memory

Oxiracetam works by increasing two of the body's most important chemicals for learning: acetylcholine and glutamate. An increase in these neurotransmitters has been shown to help with everything from speech clarity to problem-solving skills.

These positive effects allow people suffering from neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's Disease or dementia to experience more brain activity than they would have otherwise had if their situation remained unaltered.

Its benefits are wide-ranging, but it's most famous for enhancing cognitive formation and retention and improving your recall speed. These nootropic effects are the most studied in animal and human tests, all of which indicate that it improves memory [7]Preda, L et al. “Effects of acute doses of oxiracetam in the scopolamine model of human amnesia.” Psychopharmacology vol. 110,4 (1993): 421-6. doi:10.1007/BF02244648.

Learning Enhancement

Oxiracetam can stimulate glutamate receptors along with other receptors associated with learning. Increases in these chemicals have been shown to improve problem-solving skills, reasoning, coordination between senses, speaking clarity, and mental ability.

By taking Oxiracetam, consumers can retain information that they otherwise would not be able to [8]Fordyce, D E et al. “Enhancement of hippocampally-mediated learning and protein kinase C activity by oxiracetam in learning-impaired DBA/2 mice.” Brain research vol. 672,1-2 (1995): 170-6. … Learn more.

oxiracetam benefits

Anecdotal evidence indicates that Oxiracetam may boost students learning who need to cram for exams more than similar drugs. It can also promote analytical thinking, making it ideal for students who are tackling logic-intensive research.

These are all possible because of their effect on the brain's ability to form new memories and recall information. It speeds up both processes, making learning new things faster and more effective.

While no clinical studies involving young people prove this claim, animal studies‍ and research involving dementia patients‍ have promising data.

Enhancing Verbal Fluency

Oxiracetam has become one of the most common prescriptions to improve verbal fluency. This is because it works on glutamate receptors, which comprise a large part of language comprehension.

Many users report vast improvements in their vocabulary, as well as an increase in word recall. Interestingly, these benefits are commonly seen after short-term use. Some users believe that this substance may be more effective when taken at shorter intervals.

Verbal fluency connects to your ability to retrieve information from your brain quickly. It will help you speak with greater eloquence by sharpening your mind.

That means no more pausing mid-sentence to find the right words to most effectively convey your message. Proof of its effectiveness is evident in the clinical trials involving individuals with dementia or age-related cognitive decline, dementia, and cognitive impairment.

Because the drug also boosts cognitive formation and recall, it'll be helpful to those who are trying to learn a new language and not just to those with cognitive impairment or dementia.

Memory Retention

Oxiracetam's ability to block PDE4 enzymes prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine and dopamine, two chemicals associated with memory retention and recall capabilities.

By blocking these enzymes, consumers experience improved recall and learning capacity. Additionally, it has been shown to potentiate other nootropics, making their effects more potent when taken with this substance, especially by people with dementia.

Boosting Concentration and Focus

Oxiracetam has been shown to significantly affect the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh), which is responsible for attention and focus [9]Mochizuki, D et al. Nihon yakurigaku zasshi. Folia pharmacologica Japonica vol. 99,1 (1992): 27-35. doi:10.1254/fpj.99.27.

If you struggle with focusing on tasks, it can help by increasing your overall concentration. The more focused you are, the more time you can spend studying or completing tasks without your mind wandering and becoming distracted.

Brain Protection

As a neuroprotectant, it may prevent Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and other forms of dementia from forming or progressing. There's evidence of this effect in studies involving animals with impaired memory formation [10]Wang, Dan et al. “Oxiracetam Mediates Neuroprotection Through the Regulation of Microglia Under Hypoxia-Ischemia Neonatal Brain Injury in Mice.” Molecular neurobiology vol. 58,8 (2021): … Learn more.

Many users report having improved brain plasticity when taking this nootropic. This means that neurons, the building blocks of the human brain, are more capable of growing and dividing. This significantly impacts a person's ability to recover from traumatic injuries or other issues causing cognitive disabilities or even dementia.

How Do You Take Oxiracetam For Cognitive Enhancement?

Oxiracetam is typically taken in powder form, though it is also available in capsules and tablets. The recommended dosage can be taken in 2 or 3 divided doses. It can be taken with or without food, but it is recommended to take it with food to minimize the chances of an upset stomach.

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There is no need to cycle Oxiracetam, but some people like to do so to prevent tolerance build-up. A 4-week, 2-week off schedule is typically used if you cycle it.

What Is The Recommended Dosage For Oxiracetam?

In human clinical trials, patients took multiple-dose administration daily for a combined 700 - 2,400 mg. Never take more than the limit of 4,000 mg daily to avoid overdose. Depending on your preference, you may take it on its own or mix it with juice or water.

Since the supplement is unregulated, general guidelines regarding its dosage are unavailable. If it's your first time using it, we recommend starting at the lowest effective dose and working your way up as necessary to meet your needs.

Do not drink alcohol within 24 hours after taking this supplement, as it may diminish its effects. If you choose to take Oxiracetam as a nootropic, experts recommend taking it in the early mornings for maximum positive impact and results.

It's not advisable to take this drug during pregnancy or breastfeeding since its effects on unborn/nursing babies are still unknown at this point. Patients with kidney problems should also avoid taking this drug as a precaution.

What Are The Side Effects Of Oxiracetam?

The most common side effects of Oxiracetam are headaches and gastrointestinal upset. To avoid headaches, it is recommended to start with a lower dosage and increase it gradually as needed. If you experience gastrointestinal upset, it is recommended to take Oxiracetam with food.

oxiracetam side effects

Other potential side effects include anxiety, agitation, irritability, and insomnia. If you experience any of these side effects, reducing the dosage or stop taking Oxiracetam altogether is recommended.

Oxiracetam is considered to be non-toxic, and there have been no reports of serious side effects or overdoses. However, as with any supplement, it is always best to err on the side of caution and start with a lower dosage to see how your body reacts.

Where to Buy Oxiracetam Online?

As always, purchasing your nootropics from a reputable vendor is vital. The best way to buy nootropics is online, so you can compare prices and find the best deal on both supplements before deciding which one to use.

You can buy Oxiracetam online from several vendors. But if you want a safe product that delivers the best results, buy from a reputable vendor with a track record for selling genuine nootropics.

SwissChems is a nootropics vendor that offers high-quality products at competitive prices.

What Do People Say About Oxiracetam On Reddit?

Here's feedback from real people on Reddit:

According to Psycho_student:

"...Today, I absolutely smashed my Psychology exam on Oxiracetam and I just want to share my experience with this noot because I noticed so much difference in my cognition, especially memory, verbal comprehension, and verbal fluency!!! I just can't help it… I studied for this exam for only three days and a significant amount of information I memorized was in the last 5 hours before the exam! It's so much easier than at my baseline memory."

According to LosBuratnos:

"…I had six days to write 10,000 words on Chechen terrorism… Working 7-8 hours a day, for 6 days, I did my dissertation and got a B1 (equivalent 17/20 points). The funniest thing is, right now, if I read it, it makes a lot of sense and is actually a pretty interesting piece of research…Oxi gave me a significant increase in focus, to the point where I could work for 2-3 hours without even checking Facebook. I was just reading/writing all the time. It's something that I could NEVER experience in real life. Would top it up with occasional Red Bull and a sandwich. The focus was just laser-sharp. It also helped me with memory (was clearly retaining more info in both short-term and long-term)…"

What Nootropics Are Similar To Oxiracetam?

A few nootropics are similar to Oxiracetam in terms of their benefits. These include Piracetam, Aniracetam, and Pramiracetam.

  • Piracetam: is the oldest and most well-known nootropic in the racetam family. It is structurally similar to Oxiracetam and is thought to work in a similar way. Piracetam has been shown to improve cognitive function in healthy adults and those suffering from cognitive decline [11]Tariska, P, and A Paksy. “A piracetam tünetjavító hatása enyhe kognitív zavar és demencia tünetcsoportjában szenvedó betegeken” [Cognitive enhancement effect of piracetam in patients … Learn more.
  • Aniracetam: is more potent than piracetam and protects neurons by blocking AMPA receptors and facilitating interhemispheric transfer through the corpus callosum [12]Nakamura, K et al. “Impulsivity and AMPA receptors: aniracetam ameliorates impulsive behavior induced by a blockade of AMPA receptors in rats.” Brain research vol. 862,1-2 (2000): … Learn more.
  • Pramiracetam: is a more potent analog of Piracetam and is thought to improve cognitive function by increasing blood flow to the brain.

The overall difference between these racetams is potency, with Pramiracetam being the most potent, followed by Aniracetam, and then Piracetam. They all work similarly to Oxiracetam, but each has its own unique benefits.

What Brain Supplements Can Oxiracetam Be Stacked With?

Oxiracetam can be stacked with other nootropics to enhance its effects. The most common stack is Oxiracetam + a choline source such as Alpha-GPC or Citicoline. This stack is thought to be more effective than taking Oxiracetam alone.

Alpha-GPC is a choline-containing compound that increases acetylcholine levels in the brain. We recommend using 750 mg Oxiracetam and 300 mg Alpha-GPC one to two times daily for optimal effect.

Citicoline, or CDP-choline, is another choline-containing compound that increases acetylcholine levels and has been shown to improve cognitive function in healthy adults.

If you don't want to buy each ingredient separately, you can find all of these nootropics in the popular nootropic blend, NooCube.

NooCube contains 13 different nootropic ingredients, including Alpha-GPC, that all work together to improve cognitive function. NooCube is the perfect foundation to stack with other nootropics like Oxiracetam.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Your most pressing questions answered.

How Long Does It Take For Oxiracetam To Work?

Oxiracetam's onset of action is 30-90 Minutes. However, it may take several days or weeks for the full effects to be felt.

How Does Oxiracetam Make You Feel?

Oxiracetam makes users feel sharper, more focused, and more motivated. It helps users learn new material or work through tedious tasks. Users have also reported an improvement in mood, likely due to the increase in acetylcholine available for use in the brain.

What Is The Half-Life Of Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam's elimination half-life is estimated to be 8 hours. This means that it will take about 8 hours for the body to remove half of the Oxiracetam that has been consumed.

Is It Safe To Use Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is considered to be safe for most healthy adults. When taken at the recommended dosage, 700 - 2,400 mg daily, there are no serious side effects. In rare cases, some people may experience headaches, anxiety, or insomnia.

Is Oxiracetam FDA-approved?

In the United States, Oxiracetam is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical purposes. It is, however, permitted to purchase and consume.

Is Oxiracetam Natural?

Oxiracetam is not natural. It's a synthetic molecule that is not found in food sources or in nature. Oxiracetam is derived from Piracetam, which was the first nootropic ever created.

Does Oxiracetam Have Any Drug Interactions?

Oxiracetam may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners and anticonvulsants. If you take any medication, please speak to a doctor before using Oxiracetam.

Conclusion

So what do we know about Oxiracetam?

It's a powerful nootropic derived from Piracetam that can improve cognitive function, memory, and learning. It has few side effects and is considered to be safe for most healthy adults.

Oxiracetam is best taken at a dosage of 700-2400 mg daily and can be stacked with choline sources such as Citicoline or Alpha GPC for even greater effects.

It can also be stacked with a complete nootropic blend like NooCube for a synergistic effect. NooCube contains all the necessary ingredients to support cognitive function and overall brain health.

References

References
1Copani, A et al. “Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in neuronal cultures.” Journal of neurochemistry vol. 58,4 (1992): 1199-204. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb11329.x
2Sumi, T., Harada, K. Mechanism underlying hippocampal long-term potentiation and depression based on competition between endocytosis and exocytosis of AMPA receptors. Sci Rep 10, 14711 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71528-3
3Dudkin, S M et al. “Calcium entry blockers and oxiracetam have opposite effects on the density of dihydropyridine receptors in rat cerebral cortex.” Brain research vol. 525,2 (1990): 319-21. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(90)90882-c
4Bottini, G et al. “Oxiracetam in dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Acta neurologica Scandinavica vol. 86,3 (1992): 237-41. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.1992.tb05077.x
5Leaderbrand, Katherine et al. “Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors act in synergy to facilitate learning and memory.” Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) vol. 23,11 631-638. 17 Oct. 2016, doi:10.1101/lm.043133.116
6Villardita, C et al. “Clinical studies with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia of mild to moderate degree.” Neuropsychobiology vol. 25,1 (1992): 24-8. doi:10.1159/000118805
7Preda, L et al. “Effects of acute doses of oxiracetam in the scopolamine model of human amnesia.” Psychopharmacology vol. 110,4 (1993): 421-6. doi:10.1007/BF02244648
8Fordyce, D E et al. “Enhancement of hippocampally-mediated learning and protein kinase C activity by oxiracetam in learning-impaired DBA/2 mice.” Brain research vol. 672,1-2 (1995): 170-6. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(94)01389-y
9Mochizuki, D et al. Nihon yakurigaku zasshi. Folia pharmacologica Japonica vol. 99,1 (1992): 27-35. doi:10.1254/fpj.99.27
10Wang, Dan et al. “Oxiracetam Mediates Neuroprotection Through the Regulation of Microglia Under Hypoxia-Ischemia Neonatal Brain Injury in Mice.” Molecular neurobiology vol. 58,8 (2021): 3918-3937. doi:10.1007/s12035-021-02376-z
11Tariska, P, and A Paksy. “A piracetam tünetjavító hatása enyhe kognitív zavar és demencia tünetcsoportjában szenvedó betegeken” [Cognitive enhancement effect of piracetam in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia]. Orvosi hetilap vol. 141,22 (2000): 1189-93.
12Nakamura, K et al. “Impulsivity and AMPA receptors: aniracetam ameliorates impulsive behavior induced by a blockade of AMPA receptors in rats.” Brain research vol. 862,1-2 (2000): 266-9. doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(00)02160-0
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