Sunifiram Review: Nootropic Benefits, Dosage, & Side Effects

Updated on December 4, 2022
 by ā€” reviewed by Jason Williams, PhD (Contributor: George Collins / Editor: Yoko Hill)

In this Sunifiram review, we'll take an in-depth look at this popular nootropic. We'll also go over how Sunifiram works in the brain, information about the benefits, side effects, and where you can buy it online.

Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) is an experimental nootropic drug. It is more potent than Piracetam and acts on the AMPA receptors. Additionally, it shares anti-amnesiac properties with its parent drug, Piracetam.

It's not considered to be a part of the racetam family due to breaking the pyrrolidone backbone, but it's similar in its effects on the brain. Sunifiram operates similarly to Nefiracetam in the hippocampus, and like that drug, it has shown anti-amnesiac properties and cognitive enhancement.

On a per-weight basis, its anti-amnesia activity surpasses Piracetam and is quicker to take effect.

Let's look closely at Sunifiram and what Science has to say about it.

SunifiramĀ Review Summary

Sunifiram's nootropic potential is derived from its effects on the AMPA receptors. Using this method can improve memory and cognition. It works at a smaller dosage than Piracetam and has less pronounced side effects. Sunifiram helps boost focus, motivation, and learning ability.

Like Piracetam, it has shown the potential to help with age-related cognitive decline. It's also been found effective at boosting working memory even better than many other nootropics on the market today and helping improve information processing speed.


  • Boosts focus and cognition
  • Improves memory, learning ability, and information processing speed
  • Helps reduce age-related cognitive decline


  • Limited research available
  • Hard to find high-quality Sunifiram online

What Is Sunifiram?

sunifiram structure

Sunifiram is an AMPAkine, which is a class of nootropic drugs that affects the AMPA receptor in the brain. These drugs have been shown to slow down deactivation and reduce desensitization of AMPA receptor currents, thereby increasing synaptic responses and enhancing long-term potentiation [1].

AMPAkines, like Sunifiram, are specifically designed to work by increasing the signaling at the glutamate-activated AMPA receptors. The result is improved synaptic plasticity, which provides users with enhanced memory, cognition, and learning abilities.

By increasing synaptic responses, Sunifiram can help improve overall brain function. Additionally, because Sunifiram is quicker to take effect than Piracetam, it can be a more effective treatment for memory loss and other cognitive issues.

This makes it a promising new treatment for several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

Imagebuy sunifiram
EffectsImprove focus and mental clarity, increases acetylcholine
Potential Side EffectsHeadache, body temperature increase, nausea, blocked nose
Half-Life1 - 2 hours
Common Dosage5 - 10 mg daily
Content10 g
Money Back GuaranteeCase-by-case
Ratingā­ā­ā­ā­ā­ 4.5/5
Best VendorClickĀ HereĀ ā€ŗ

That being said, Sunifiram is mainly studied for its antiamnesic properties, but the research is still in the early stages. It's not currently approved by the FDA for any particular use.

How Does SunifiramĀ Work In The Brain?

Sunifiram's mechanism of action remains unclear. Some researchers hypothesize that it works by way of increasing activity in the CaMKII and PKCa pathways. This is possible because glycine binding sites on NMDA receptors are activated.

sunifiram review

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II 

The protein CaMKII, or CaM kinase II, is a phosphorylating agent of serine and threonine that is regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin complex. Its significance lies in its ability to play a role in cellular signaling pathways connected to learning and memory [2].

Furthermore, CamKII aids in maintaining healthy levels of calcium ions in cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells), chloride transport in epithelial cells, positive T-cell selection during an immune response, and CD8 T-cell activation.

When not working properly, CamKII has been linked with causing Alzheimer's disease as well as Angelman Syndrome - a neurological disorder - and heart arrhythmias.

CamKII has also been shown to play a role in long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP is the molecular process of strengthening synapses that are active. This process is thought to allow us, humans to create and store memories [3].

LTP is initiated when the NMDA receptors are situated in an environment with a high voltage potential. This displacement allows for positively charged Mg2+ ions to flow through the channel pore.

Ca2+ ions enter the postsynaptic neuron and stimulate CaMKII activity when the channel is unblocked. This increased activity of CaMKII has been linked with dendrite growth after LTP induction, which suggests that it plays a role in neural synaptic plasticity.

Protein kinase C alpha (PKCĪ±)

PKCa, or protein kinase C-alpha, is a family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. These enzymes can be activated by calcium and diglycerides (diacylglycerol). In addition, PKC phosphorylates various types of proteins (i.e., they are "protein targets") and participate in different cellular signaling pathways [4].

PKCa also plays an important role in regulating the activity of phospholipase D. Phospholipase D is an enzyme found on the plasma membrane and helps break down phosphatidylcholine into smaller components, like phosphatidic acid and choline.

Choline is an essential nutrient and precursor of acetylcholine (ACh), which is a neurotransmitter that helps the brain transmit signals.

Because PKC plays such a significant role in the signaling process, it's believed to be involved in memory formation and synaptic plasticity [5].

Due to these molecular processes, Sunifiram is showing promising results in improving cognitive function and potentially treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, more research is needed to understand its full potential and side effects.

What Is SunifiramĀ Used For?

Although Sunifiram has not been put through any toxicology testing or human clinical trials and is not approved for use in any country, that does not mean biohackers worldwide haven't started experimenting with it.

Anecdotally, Sunifiram is reported to have several nootropic effects, such as:

  • Improving memory retention and recall
  • Increasing focus and concentration
  • Heightened visual perception and spatial reasoning
  • Anti-amnesiac properties
  • Boosting mood and energy levels

Its anti-amnesiac properties have particularly sparked interest among those looking to improve their cognitive abilities. That said, most of the studies available are animal trials.

What Are The Benefits Of Sunifiram For Cognition?

One of the main benefits of Sunifiram is its ability to improve memory and cognition. Sunifiram increases the production and release of acetylcholine (ACh). High acetylcholine levels increase the ability to create memories, learn, recall information, and think analytically.

When the brain functions at a high level, we can form new neural pathways more easily and learn things faster. This is why many people use Sunifiram for studying or taking tests. Having sufficient ACh in your brain helps focus, mental clarity, and alertness.

Another benefit of Sunifiram is its ability to boost energy levels and mood. This nootropic provides a balanced level of stimulation that can help you feel more awake and alert throughout the day and improve your overall mood.

Despite Sunifiram's apparent benefits, it is important to remember that it has not yet undergone clinical testing or toxicology screening for human safety. More research is needed to understand its full potential benefits.

Where To Buy SunifiramĀ Online?

When purchasing Sunifiram online, it's important to ensure you work with a reputable source. If you buy Sunifiram from an unverified vendor, the product may not be pure or contain other potentially harmful or ineffective substances.

In fact, some anecdotal reports on Reddit have described some of the Sunifiram products they purchased as not being pure or not even containing Sunifiram at all.

In addition to asking for lab results on each product you're considering purchasing, it's also important to look for third-party verification regarding product quality and safety. This can be done through organizations like the United States PharmacopeiaĀ (USP).

With this in mind, we at WholisticResearch, recommend ordering Sunifiram from Chemyo, a US-based company specializing in nootropics and other health supplements. Chemyo offers third-party tests for every product they sell, so you can be sure that what you're getting is the real deal.

Their Sunifiram comes in a 10-gr container, costing you $39.99 (USD). You can find Sunifiram from Chemyo right here:

What Do People Say About SunifiramĀ On Reddit?

Let's take a look at what some people have said about Sunifiram on Reddit:

User "Smile45" writes:

"Hey guys ā€“ I ordered sunifiram from chemyo, which is a USA vendor. It was a nice, clean product with great packaging and shipping. [...] I had to be at work 9-5, but the combination of suni and phenibut kept me level in terms of energy, and cognitively I was able to be at an all-day energy level... Sunifiram on its own is enough to get me going and gives me great energy.

And "johnnynubian" says:

"Just stacked Sunifiram with NooCube on an empty stomach... Holy **** love the energy and focus from this stack. Def recommend it!!"

According to 25c-nb:

ā€œI have been taking suni for a few months now because its amazingly helpful in my math class. I was at a dose of 10 mg three times a day but now ive dropped to 5 mg two times a dayā€¦ā€

According to Flint_Ironstagg:

ā€œSunifiram at 5 mg gives me an intense laser-like focus that is actually rather uncomfortable, especially in social settings. I would liken it to a mega dose of Noopept.ā€

How Do You Take SunifiramĀ For Cognitive Enhancement?

Because Sunifiram is more potent than piracetam, taking it in smaller doses is recommended. Most biohackers will typically split their dosage up into 3 equal administrations throughout the day, usually taken first in the morning on an empty stomach, then 1-2 hours before lunch, and finally 3-4 hours before dinner.

If you're just starting with Sunifiram, you should begin with the minimum effective dose on an empty stomach to assess how it affects you. If there are no side effects, you can increase your dose until you find a dosage that works for you.

Ultimately, the minimum effective dose will vary from person to person and should be determined by experimenting with different dosages. To avoid side effects or overstimulation, start at the low end of the suggested range, and doses can always be increased slowly.

We don't recommend stacking Sunifiram with other nootropics if you're just starting. This will allow you to assess the effects of Sunifiram on its own before stacking it with other nootropics, which can be dangerous.

Moreover, research on how Sunifiram interacts with other substances is limited, and there could be negative interactions that we don't yet know about.

Due to a lack of substantial evidence, it is tough to establish an ideal dosage for Sunifiram. However, 1mg/kg has been found to work well for both rats and mice, which would give humans a preliminary dose of 0.08-0.16mg/kg (For someone who weighs 150lbs, this equates to 5.4-11mg).

We recommend taking between 5 and 10 mg 1-2 times daily. Start with 5mg once daily; if you don't feel anything, try taking 5 mg in the morning and another 5 at noon or afternoon. Again, this is just a suggestion, so we recommend experimenting to find what works best for you.

As mentioned above, make sure you split up your dose throughout the day (e.g., 5mg in the morning and 5 mg during the afternoon) to avoid overstimulation or side effects.

What Are The Side Effects Of Sunifiram?

A study exploring the efficacy of Sunifiram found that even at 1000 times the minimum effective dose, no toxic symptoms were observed [6].

Despite the lack of side effects at high doses, some Sunifiram users have reported side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. If you experience any of these symptoms, we recommend reducing your dosage or taking it with meals to see if they subside.

In general, it is recommended to start with small doses and pay attention to how Sunifiram affects you before trying larger doses or stacking it with other nootropics.

Sunifiram is very similar in its effects to other nootropics such as Piracetam, Nefiracetam, and Unifiram (DM232). However, its potency makes it stand out as a more powerful alternative to these nootropics.

  • Piracetam is considered the original nootropic and differs from Sunifiram in that its effects are more subtle. Piracetam is typically used to enhance focus and concentration, while Sunifiram is more associated with enhancing memory and learning capacity.
  • Nefiracetam is a cognitive enhancer of the racetam class, derived from Piracetam. Nefiracetam shares the most structural similarities to Aniracetam, another fat-soluble racetam drug used for memory enhancement or treating cognitive decline.
  • Unifiram is similar to Sunifiram because it is a newer, more potent alternative to Piracetam. It also has anti-amnesic properties and enhances memory and learning abilities.

The biggest difference between Unifiram and Sunifiram is its chemical structure.

Unifiram has two enantiomers, with the dextro form being the more active isomer. This means that Unifiram is much more selective than Sunifiram, which has a far greater distribution throughout the body.

What Brain Supplements Can Sunifiram Be Stacked With?

According to our market research, the 4 most popular nootropics to stack with Sunifiram are: Alpha GPC, CDP-Choline (Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine), Centrophenoxine and NooCube.

  • Alpha GPC is a choline source that is known to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and it is converted into acetylcholine (ACh), which is a neurotransmitter essential for cognitive function. Alpha GPC helps to protect neurons and improve signal transmission, making it an ideal supplement to stack with Sunifiram.
  • CDP-Choline is another choline source that is converted into cytidine and then phosphatidylcholine (PC), which helps to improve cognitive functions such as memory and learning. This makes it a good complement to Sunifiram, enhancing these brain processes.
  • Centrophenoxine is an ester of DMAE (dimethylethanolamine) that combines DMAE and pCPA (parachlorphenoxyacetic acid), which increases choline levels in the brain by preventing the uptake of choline. Centrophenoxine will increase brain energy levels by boosting oxygen utilization. It is also a potent antioxidant that can protect the brain against age-related cognitive decline, making it beneficial to combine with Sunifiram.

If buying multiple nootropic ingredients seems a bit much, we highly recommend looking into a solid nootropic blend like NooCube. NooCube contains 13 different nootropic ingredients, all of which have been rigorously tested and proven to work.

The 13 different ingredients work synergistically, meaning they work better together than they would alone, resulting in a very powerful nootropic formula.

NooCube is an award-winning brain supplement that helps improve focus, memory recall, mental speed, cognitive function, mood, and energy levels. It makes a great foundation for anyone who wants to increase their cognitive abilities.

You can read more about NooCube right here:

Let's take a look at some of the most common questions people have about Sunifiram and its effects on brain function:

How Long Does It Take For SunifiramĀ To Work?

Sunifiram kicks in fast, and its effects can be felt within the first hour of taking it. People who take it on an empty stomach tend to feel its effects more quickly than those who take it with food.

How Does SunifiramĀ Make You Feel?

Sunifiram makes you feel more alert, focused, and energetic. People report feeling sharper, able to learn and retain information more easily and having better mental clarity. It can also improve overall mood, as well as energy levels.

What's The Half-Life Of Sunifiram?

The half-life of Sunifiram is 1-2 hours, meaning that it takes the body around 2 hours to eliminate half of the active compound from the bloodstream.

Is It Safe To Use Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is considered safe to use. There have been no reports of serious side effects associated with it, though some people may experience mild headaches or nausea that typically resolve on their own or by taking a choline source such as Alpha GPC.

Is SunifiramĀ Legal?

Sunifiram is an unscheduled drug in the US and most other parts of the world, meaning that it is not regulated by any governmental agency. However, you should check your local laws to ensure that it is legal in your area before buying or using Sunifiram.

Does SunifiramĀ Have Any Drug Interactions?

Sunifiram has not been studied extensively in regard to drug interactions, so it is best to use caution when combining it with any prescription medications and talk to your doctor about potential interactions.


So what do we know about Sunifiram?

It is a more potent nootropic than Piracetam, helping improve memory and learning capacity and boosting energy and focus. It works quickly, kicking in within the first hour and providing noticeable effects for around 4+ hours.

Sunifiram is an AMPAkine drug that modulates the AMPA receptors in the brain to enhance glutamate transmission, which is associated with improved brain function and neuroplasticity.

Sunifiram is also considered safe and well-tolerated, with few reported side effects. And while it is unregulated in most parts of the world, it is important to check your local laws before using Sunifiram or any other nootropic.


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ā†‘2Moriguchi, Shigeki, et al. ā€œNovel Nootropic Drug Sunifiram Improves Cognitive Deficits via Cam Kinase II and Protein Kinase C Activation in Olfactory Bulbectomized Mice.ā€ Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 242, 2013, pp. 150ā€“157.,
ā†‘3Lisman, John, et al. ā€œMechanisms of Camkii Action in Long-Term Potentiation.ā€ Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 15 Feb. 2012,
ā†‘4Moriguchi, Shigeki et al. ā€œNovel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.ā€ Hippocampus vol. 23,10 (2013): 942-51. doi:10.1002/hipo.22150
ā†‘5Picciotto, Marina R et al. ā€œAcetylcholine as a neuromodulator: cholinergic signaling shapes nervous system function and behavior.ā€ Neuron vol. 76,1 (2012): 116-29. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.036
ā†‘6Manetti, D et al. ā€œMolecular simplification of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones gives piperazine derivatives that maintain high nootropic activity.ā€ Journal of medicinal chemistry vol. 43,23 (2000): 4499-507. doi:10.1021/jm000972h